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Research Methodology

Chaudry Bilal Ahmad Khan

Types of Research
Type of research depends on the view of the study which needs to be
Application Perspective
Pure Research
Applied Research
Objectives Perspective
Descriptive Study
Exploratory Study
Explanatory Study
Correlation Study
Enquiry Mode Perspective
Qualitative Study
Quantitative Study
Types of Research
Application Perspective
Pure Research
Research that is driven purely by curiosity and a desire to expand our knowledge
Applied Research
Research that is used to answer a specific question that has direct applications to the world
Objectives Perspective
Descriptive Study
Describe systematically a situation, problem, phenomenon
Exploratory Study
Study is undertaken with the objective either to explore an area where little is known or to investigate
the possibilities of undertaking a particular research study
Explanatory Study
Clarify why and how there is a relationship between two aspects of a situation or phenomenon
Correlation Study
Discover or establish the existence of a relationship/association/interdependence between two or more
aspects of a situation
Types of Research
Enquiry Mode Perspective
Quantitative Study
Research Design
What is research design?
Plan the research
Structure the research
Strategize the investigation
Research design is a blueprint or detailed plan for how a research
study is to be completed
Operationalizing variables so they can be measured
Selecting a sample of interest to study
Collecting data to be used as a basis for testing hypotheses
Analyzing the results
Research Design
Research design has two main functions
First relates to the identification and/or development of procedures and
logistical arrangements required to undertake a study
Second emphasizes the importance of quality in these procedures to ensure
their validity, objectivity and accuracy
Hence, through research design:
Conceptualize an operational plan to undertake the various procedures and
tasks required to complete your study
Ensure that these procedures are adequate to obtain valid, objective and
accurate answers to the research questions
Research Design

Change in Change because Change because Change because

Dependent = of independent of extraneous of mediating
Variable variable variable variable
Selecting Study Design
Study design depends on the type of the study to be carried out
Two main types of studies can be carried out
Qualitative Study
Quantitative Study
Study design depends upon the focus of the study
The classification of the research design is based on
Number of Contacts
Reference Period
Nature of Investigation
Selecting Study Design
Number of Contacts
Cross-Sectional Studies
Before and After Study
Longitudinal Study
Reference Period
Nature of Investigation
Selecting Study Design Number of Contacts
Cross Sectional Research Design
One-shot or status studies
Most commonly used design in the social sciences
Aimed at finding out the prevalence of a phenomenon, situation, problem,
attitude or issue
Before and After Research Design
It can measure change in a situation, phenomenon, issue, problem or attitude
Study Intervention Study
Population Population

Pre- Post
Observation Observation
Selecting Study Design Number of Contacts
Longitudinal Study Design
Studying the pattern of change
Pattern of change in relation to time

Study Study Study Study Study

Population Population Population Population Population

t t t t
Selecting Study Design Reference Period
Retrospective Study Design
Investigate a phenomenon, situation, problem or issue that has happened in the past
Conducted either on the basis of the data available for that period
Prospective Study Design
Refer to the likely prevalence of a phenomenon, situation, problem, attitude or
outcome in the future
Attempt to establish the outcome of an event
Retrospective-Prospective Study Design
Focus on past trends in a phenomenon and study it into the future
Part of the data is collected retrospectively from the existing records
Study population is followed to ascertain the impact of the intervention
Selecting Study Design Nature of
Non-Experimental Experimental

Cause Effect

Population and Sampling
Non-Probability Sampling
Deviant Case
Probability Sampling
Simple random Sampling
Systematic Sampling
Stratified Random Sampling
Multi-stage sampling
Cluster Sampling
Population and Sampling
Haphazard Sampling / Convenient Sampling
Cheap and quick
Can produce ineffective, highly unrepresentative samples
NOT recommended
Person-on-the-street interviews
Clip out survey from a newspaper and mail it in
Population and Sampling
Quota Sampling
First you identify relevant categories of people
Then you figure out how many to sample from each category
Ensures that some differences are in the sample
Still haphazard sampling within the category, however
Population and Sampling
Purposive Sampling
Expert uses judgment in selecting cases with a specific purpose in mind
Especially informative cases
Difficult-to-reach, specialized population
Particular types of cases
Population and Sampling
Snowball Sampling
Identifying and sampling the cases in a network
I find a prostitute to talk to, then ask her for some more prostitutes I could
talk to, and it goes on and on and on
Population and Sampling
Sequential Sampling
Researcher uses purposive sampling until the amount of new information or
diversity of cases is filled
Gather info until the marginal utility of new information levels off
Population and Sampling
Simple Random
Randomly selected
Population and Sampling
Systematic Sampling
Sample members from
a larger population are
selected according to a
random starting point
and a fixed periodic
Population and Sampling
Cluster Sampling
A group of sampling units close to each other i.e. crowding together in the same
area or neighborhood
Two-step sampling procedure
First, convert the larger population to the smaller population
Second, select the samples for the smaller population
Section 1 Section 2

Section 3

Section 5

Section 4
Population and Sampling
Stratified Sampling
Division of a population into smaller groups known as strata
Strata are formed based on members' shared attributes or characteristics
Random sample from each stratum is taken in a number proportional to the
stratum's size when compared to the population