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Radiology & imaging Department,

SSMC & Mitford Hospital.

Modalites are:-
Conventional X-ray.


CT scan.


Digital x-ray.




1. X-ray tube

2. Generator

3. Control box
X-ray tube

A. Function: To produce x-ray.

B. Construction: Consistent of inner air
vacuum glass tube containing tungsten
coil on one side & target on opposite
side with cover externally by a x-ray
proof metallic tube.
Mechanism of x-ray
On passing current through the coil, electrons come
out from the atom and cloud in front of the coil. On
applying negative charges on the coil side (cathode)
and positive charge on the target (anode), electron
moves towards the target side. By positively
charged nucleus of target tungsten stop the first
moving electron (deceleration) by attraction. On
stopping the kinetic energy of first moving electron
converted into heat (>99%) and x-ray(<01%).
Characteristics of x-ray
- This is electromagnetic wave
- Non-visible
- It has energy
- Always run in straight way
- Has ionizing power
- No need for media to run.
Interaction of x-ray with body
On passing through the body (due to energy)
it interacts with body tissue. Interaction
depends on density and length of the
More density > more interaction> more
absorption of x-ray.
More thickness of the tissue> more length of
the interaction> more absorption.
In descending order:
Density- teeth> bones> soft tissue> fluid>
subcutaneous fat> air.

After interaction, x-ray coming out from the

opposite of the body carrying the image
of the organ, but still is invisible.
Film processing (to visualize
the image)
X-ray film- Patient remains between the tube
and x-ray film. Film always kept in cassette
(metallic box like structure) to avoid light
contact & placed on the opposite side of the

Film consists of plastic sheet on both surface

of which are covered by silver bromide.
Interaction of x-ray with film
X-ray after coming from the patient come in
contact with the x-ray film passing
through the wall of the cassette, interact
with AgBr and convert it into reduced
silver (black color) to produce the latent
image in the film.
Developer solution:
After interaction with the x-ray, film
removed from cassette in dark room and
sink in the developer solution.
Function of the developer solution to
visualize the latent image in the film.
Content of developer solution
A. Organic reducing agent:- A mixer of
Hydroquinone & metol for manual
processing & hydroquinone & phenidone
for automated processor.
B. Preservatives- Sodium sulfite.
C. Accelerator Sodium carbonate or
sodium hydroxide.
D. Restrainer- Potassium bromide
Fixing solution
To dissolve the unreacted silver atom and
fix up the reacted silver atom.
Composition of fixer
A. Fixing agent sodium thio-sulfate or
ammonium thio-sulfate.
B. Preservative- Sodium sulfite.
C. Hardner Chrome alum or Potassium
D. Acid- Sulfuric acid or acetic acid.
Film drying
a. Air
b. Drying machine
Radiation Hazard

All ionizing radiation is harmful.

Harmful effect are two type
1) Somatic.
2) Genetic.
1) Somatic effect-
Those effects harmful to the person being irradiate is called
somatic effect. Most important somatic effects are:-
a) Carcinogenosis. Among them leukemia is the most common
neoplasia. Low dose of radiation may cause neoplasia and
there is long latent period 5-20 years and 10-30 years for
other tumor.
b) increase degenerative change.
c) cataract.
d) Decreased spermatogenesis.
2) Genetic effect
# Those effects harmful to future generation are called genetic
# Upto 12 generation there is change of genetic effect.
Maximum permissible dose.
Should not exced 5 Rem/years.
Rem :- is a unit of absorbed dose of equivalent to Rad.
Rad :- One rad is equal to the radiation necessary to deposit energy
of 100 ergs in one gram of irradiate material (100ergs/grm )
Note : No known lower limit of radiation safe to hazards.
So protection of radiation is very much important.
Following steps are important to minimise radiation exposure-
1) Distance : more distance from radiation source,double
reduction of radiation exposure. ( inverse square law ).
2) Time :- Less time of exposure, more reduction of radiation
3) Barriers :- Usually lead or concreat.
Other additional measures-
i) Lead apron.
ii) Dosimetry use.
iii) TLD.
Iv) Film badge.