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PARTICULATES

Dividing Collection Devices

PRIMARY PARTICULATES CONTROL

DEVICES

Settling chambers

Cyclones

Electrostatic precipitators

Filters (surface and depth)

Scrubbers

Wall Collection Devices

Function by driving the particles to a solid wall

Adhere to each other to form agglomerates,

then removed.

Gravity settler, cyclone, ESP use the same

general design equation.

Gravity Settling Chamber

A long chamber, allowing time for partcl to settle

by gravity.

Simple device, low maintenance.

Must be cleaned

manually.

Cross-sect area, HW,

lowers velocity.

Baffles spread flow

evenly.

GRAVITY SETTLING CHAMBERS:

MATH MODELS

limiting cases: plug flow, mixed flow.

Particle removal efficiency related to

residence time in chamber

distance to travel before hitting wall

terminal settling velocity

Baffled chamber

Block or Mixed Models

Average horizontal velocity Vh

Qgas

of gas: WidthH eight

Length

flow direction: Vgas

h

Time for particle to settle: t

Vt

settling distance = tVterminal

SETTLING CHAMBER

CAPTURE EFFICIENCIES

plug

HeightVgas

mixed 1 exp

HeightVgas

Efficiency & Particle

diameter relatonship

Replace terminal velocity with Stokes

Law eqn:

LgD 2 p

for plug flow

HVavg 18

mixed 1 exp plug

Example

Calculate efficiencies as a function of particle diameter

(hence terminal settling velocity) for the two models:

Height = 2 m

Length = 10 m

VAvg = 1 m/s

Calculate for 1, both models give same result.

Calculate for other diameters, results plotted in Fig 9.2

Plug flow and mixed flow efficiencies for gravity

settler, Example 9.1

particle >50 m.

Design for smaller particles?

Increase efficiency by making L larger

(very long & expensive)

Making H bigger

Subdividing the chamber with horizontal

plates (makes cleaning difficult)

Lowering the Vavg (need larger cross-

sect area)

Increasing the g force???

Horizontal elutriators

Small gravity settlers

for partcle sampling.

Very slow air flow.

Microscopic

examination.

Problem 9.3

L = 7.5 m, H = 2.5 m, eff = 90%, Vavg =

1 m/s, Calculate Vt

THE IDEA!

Impose an external force

greater than gravity:

Centrifugal - CYCLONES

Electrostatic - ESP

CENTRIFUGAL COLLECTORS

Physics: If a body moves in a circular

path, radius r, circular velocity Vc,

angular velocity, = Vc/r

mVc2

Fcentrifugal mr 2

r

magnitude of this force

compared to g.

Example 9.2

At 60 ft/s circular velocity and 1 ft

radius:

Fcentrifugal

112

Fgravity

terminal velocity.

CYCLONES

Principles similar to settling chambers

Qgas

Vcircular

(Width Height ) of inlet duct

If we use the Stokes law for settling velocity,

substituting centrifugal acceleration for gravitational

one:

Vc2 D 2 p

Vt (eqn 9.15)

18r

Example 9.3

Repeat Example 8.1: Compute the

terminal velocity in air of a spherical

particle with diameter 1 m, cyclone

diameter 2 ft and Vc = 60ft/s

For any unspecified particle, assume specific gravity of 2.0,

hence density = 2000 kg/m3 = 124.8 lbm/ft3.

T = 25C, = 1.8 x 10-5 kg/ms

Vc2 D 2 p

Vt

18r

Example 8.1: Compute the terminal

velocity in air of a spherical particle with

diameter 1 m.

For any unspecified particle, assume

specific gravity of 2.0, hence density

= 2000 kg/m3 = 124.8 lbm/ft3.

T = 25C, = 1.8 x 10-5 kg/ms

( p a )

Vt gD 2

18

The answer is 112 times as large as the value in Ex 8.1!

Cyclones

Centrifugal force

generated by spinning of gas

Magnitude depends on

particle mass, gas velocity

within cyclone and cyclone

diameter

PM are thrown to the walls as

gas spirals upward

Separation efficiency depends

on centrifugal force exerted on

particles

Constructing a cyclone

device in any industry.

Figure 9.4 is a successful

design of a basic cyclone.

Consist of vertical body, dust

outlet at the conical bottom, gas

enters thru rectangular inlet

Cyclone

-Theory of collection efficiency

-Cyclone types (high efficiency, conventional

and high throughout)

-Design considerations pertaining to

collection efficiency, pressure drop

-Cyclones in parallel and series

Efficiency of cyclone

NDcycloneVt

plug

WiVc

mixed 1 exp plug

in the cyclone before exit

CYCLONES

velocity:

ND Vc

2

plug p

(eqn 9.18)

9Wi

Example 9.4

Compute the efficiency- diameter

relationship for a cyclone that has Wi =

0.5 ft, Vc = 60 ft/s, N = 5, 1

The Cut diameter, Dcut

Particle diameter at 50% device

collection efficiency.

Also called d50 in other books.

CYCLONE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY

ESTIMATE OF CUT DIAMETER

model (neither of which are particularly good representations

of the actual situation) we can obtain:

9Wi

Dcut

2NVc p

Empirical data on standard cyclones is required for

more precision

Example 9.5

Estimate the cut diameter for a cyclone

with Wi = 0.5 ft, Vc = 60 ft/s, N = 5

9Wi

Dcut

2NVc p

Typical Cyclone Dcut

Typically, Dcut = 5

um.

Works well for

sawdust from wood

shops, wheat grains

etc.

Not for sticky

particles like tar

droplets.

For smaller particles, what is

our option?

Make Wi smaller or Vc larger.

Making Vc larger expensive, high P drop,

pressure drop is proportional to V2

Making Wi smaller, gas flow decrease

(suitable for research or gas sampling

purposes)

Split flow into multiple cyclones to keep V

constant

Arrange large number of small cyclones

together MULTICLONE

Figure 9.5 de Nevers

Multiclone

MULTICLONE

Repeat Example 9.5

for Wi = 0.125 ft, find

Dcut.

Collection efficiency vs

particle diameter

Empirical collection efficiency vs particle diameter

behaviour of typical cyclones:

r2

1 r 2

D

r

Dcut

Eqn 9.21

Eqn 9.18 plug

flow and

Figure 9.6 de Nevers

Stokes law (Example 9.6)

Eqn 9.19

mixed flow and

Stokes law

Eqn 9.21

empirical

DIMENSIONAL RATIOS IN CYCLONE

DESIGN

increased efficiency vs reduced

pressure drop

General types:

High efficiency

Conventional

High throughput

Empirical efficiency for standard dimension

cyclone

Figure 9-3b is used to determine the colletion

efficiency of particles larger or smaller than dcut.

Example 9.7

How long does the gas spend in the

high centrifugal force field near the wall

where a particle has a good chance of

being captured?

Pressure drop

Velocity head, K = 8

gVi 2

Pressure drop Pin Pout K eqn 9.22

2

Example 9.8

A cyclone has an inlet velocity of 60 ft/s and a reported

pressure loss of 8 velocity heads (K = 8). What is the

pressure loss in pressure units?

gVi 2

Pressure drop K

2

Hydroclones

Figure 4.4, Cooper & Alley

Figure 4.3, Cooper & Alley

CYCLONE DESIGN

experience are available for specific objectives (high

efficiency, high flow throughput, or a compromise)

Cyclone manufacturer may provide empirical Dcut vs

Qgas and pressure drop vs Qgas data

An iterative (trial and error) procedure required to find

Dcyclone for desired collection efficiency

Given gas flow with known particle size distribution,

choose Dcyclone , calculate collection efficiency for each

particle size and overall, repeat.

ESP

Principle: charge the particles,

use electrostatic force to attract

them to wall

Figure 9.7 de Nevers

Sketch of

ESP

History of ESP

In 1907 Dr. Frederick G. Cottrell patent a device for

charging particles and then collecting them

through electrostatic attraction the first electrostatic

precipitator. He was then a professor of chemistry at

the University of California, Berkeley.

Also called Cottrell precipitators

the collection of sulfuric acid mist

and lead oxide fume emitted from

various acid-making and smelting

activities.

ESP Industry

Large power plants

ESP costing up to

$30 million.

Efficiency 90 95%

in 1960s; now up to

99.5%

Cake removal

Solid cakes are removed by rapping the

plates at regular intervals using mechanical

or eletromagnetic rapper.

Cake fall into hopper.

If particles are liq (e.g. sulfuric acid mist), they

run down the plate & drip off. Plates are often

replaced by circular pipes with wire in the

middle.

Wet ESP have a film of water flowing down

the pipes (no rapping).

Electrostatic Precipitators

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS

Each point in space has some electrical potential, V.

Electrical potential change form place to place, then there

is an electric field, E.

Electric potential is related to the amount of work a charge

can do

V applied voltage

Field strength, E

x distance

40 kV kV

e.g. 400 (Unit V/m)

0.1 m m

This is field strength near plates.

MV

Higher at the wire, because of geometry (5 10 )

m

Maximum charge on particles:

q 3

0 E0 (eqn 9.23)

D 2

2

q : charge , coulombs

: dielectric constant relative to free space (permittiv ity)

C

0 : 8.85 E 12 for free space

V .m

air :1.0006, particles : 4 6

D : particle diameter, m

E0 : local field strength, V/m

Example 9.9

A 1 m particle with dielectric constant of 6 has reached its

equilibrium charge in an ESP at a place where the field

strength is 300 kV/m. How many electronic charges has it?

q 3 0 D E0

2

2

6

C

0 : 8.85E 12 for free space

V .m

E0 300 V/m

Drift velocity

(I.e. terminal settling velocity under electrostatic force)

Force on particle: F = q Ep

F 3 0 D E0 E p

2

(eqn 9.25)

2

E0 E p E

settling velocity (with Stokes law for drag force):

D 0 E 2

2

Vt w

Example 9.10

Calculate the drift velocity for particle in

Ex. 9.9.

(just like terminal velocity). Values range from 0.04 0.2

Deriving the efficiency eqn:

A Lh (9.27)

Q HhVavg (9.28)

Q

So, Vavg

Hh

LVt

Substitute into 9.4 (block flow),

HVavg

Aw

(eqn 9.29) for block flow

Q

Aw

1 exp (eqn 9.30) for mixed flow

Q

Efficiency: Deutsch-Anderson eqn

Aw

1 exp mixed flow (Eqn 9 - 30)

Q

where,

A area of the collection plates, m 2

w drift velo city of the charged particles, m/s

Q flow rate of the gas stream, m3 /s

Example 9.11

Compute the efficiency-diameter relations for

an ESP with dielectric constant 6 and A/Q =

0.2 min/ft.

Example 9.12

Estimate w for coal

containing 1% S at

99.5% eff.

Example 9.13

Our ESP has a measured eff of 90%. We

wish to upgrade to 99%. By how much must

we increase the collecting area?

Modified D-A eqn

w is proportional to D.

Thus, big particles get removed first, remaining

particles gets smaller & harder to remove.

Some designers use the modified D-A eqn to take

this phenomenon into account:

k

wA

mixed 1 exp modified D A , k ~ 0.5

Q

Example 9.14.

Repeat Ex. 9.13 using Modified D-A

eqn.

Particle distribution in ESP

Uniform particle distribution is vital.

Nonuniform distribution lowers eff.

ESP Performance and cake

resistivity

ESP works well with medium-resistivity.

Voltage-distance relation for

different ash resistivities

Low resistivity ash:

small V in the

cake , weak

attraction to

collection plate,

re-entrainment .

E.g. carbon black

large V in the

cake, small V in

the wire, poor

charging, low .

E.g. sulfur

ESP Performance and cake

resistivity

ESP works well with medium-resistivity.

High resistivity ash:

- large V in the cake, small V in the wire, poor

charging, low . E.g. sulfur

- electron flow within cake, violent back corona blow

the cake off the plate.

Low resistivity ash:

- small V in the cake , weak attraction to collection

plate, re-entrainment . E.g. carbon black

ESP Performance and cake resistivity

Resistivity = 1/conductivity

If it is a poor conductor, it has high resistivity.

Remedies for low resistivity ash: nothing

much can be done.

Remedies for high resistivity ash:

- Higher temperatures, hot ESP (improves

volume conductivity)

- Gas conditioning, add hygroscopic

components to gas to improve surface

conductivity. SO3 for basic coal ash, NH3 for

acidic cement ash.

Wet ESP

WESP or wet ESP operates with saturated air

streams (100% relative humidity). One type of WESP

uses a vertical cylindrical tube with centrally-located

wire electrode (gas flowing upward) with water sprays

to clean the collected particulate from the collection

surface (plates, tubes).

The collected water and particulate forms a wet film

slurry that eliminates the resistivity issues associated

with dry ESP's.

Another type of WESP (used for coke-oven gas

detarring) uses a falling oil film to remove collected

material.

End of lecture on Wall Collecting Devices

TUTORIAL TIME!

Additional Questions

1. Our ESP is collecting 95% of the particles in our waste gas. A

salesperson now offers us an additive to add to the gas that will

change the resistivity of the collected cake of particles, thus

doubling of drift velocity. so what the new collection efficiency?

2. We are constructing a new multiple hearth roaster, for which

we plan to install an ESP to control the particles in the exhaust

gas. The gas flow will be 10,000 ft3/min . Regulations required

us to capture 99.5 % of particles in the exhaust gas. Estimate

the required ESP collecting area.

3. Current efficiency of our ESP is 95%, now we need to increase

efficiency to 99%. How much voltage we need to increase to

archive the target.

Example: Determine particle removal

efficiencies (a) 1 large cyclone (b) 64

small cyclones

Solution: Use eqn 9-4, then refer to Figure 9-3.

1/ 2

9b d

d 50 then calculate

2N v d 50

e i p

Q = 7 m3/s

Q Q T = 77C

vi

A bh 2m

Height of entrance, h = D/2 =1.5 g/cm3

dp = 10m

Ne eqn is not in syllabus. Value for Ne will be given. For the eqn, refer to other books e.g. Lapple.

(b) 64 cyclones with diameters 24 cm.

Compare the efficiencies.

Example 9-4 Determining plate area

requirements for an ESP

Infos given:

Gases flowing at 10 m3/s

Particle diameter, dp = 0.5 m

Determine the plate area required with efficiency

(a) 90% (b) 99%

Aw

1 exp

Q

ESP

Control of primary particulates : ESPs

Introduction and overview of ESP

Theory of ESP operation, corona, Deutsch equation,

drift velocity, total electric force

Design considerations, particulate resistivity

Plates and wires, removal of particulate dust, power

consumption

Flue gas conditioning

Fabric filters

Control of primary particulates :

Fabric filters

Introduction and overview of fabric

filters

Theory of fabric filter operation,

pressure drop, fabrics

Design of shaker and reverse air

baghouse filters, maximum filtering

velocity, no. of compartments

Pulse-jet baghouse filter

Particulate scrubbers

Control of primary particulates:

Particulate scrubbers

Introduction to scrubbing equipment: spray

chamber scrubbers, cyclone spray

scrubbers, orifice and wet-impingement

scrubbers, venture scrubbers

Wet scrubber theory and design, spray

chambers

Pressure loss in venture scrubbers,

contacting power approach in scrubber

design

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