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CONTROL OF PRIMARY

PARTICULATES

Wall collection devices


Dividing Collection Devices
PRIMARY PARTICULATES CONTROL
DEVICES

WALL COLLECTION DEVICES


Settling chambers
Cyclones
Electrostatic precipitators

DIVIDING COLLECTION DEVICES


Filters (surface and depth)
Scrubbers
Wall Collection Devices
Function by driving the particles to a solid wall
Adhere to each other to form agglomerates,
then removed.
Gravity settler, cyclone, ESP use the same
general design equation.
Gravity Settling Chamber
A long chamber, allowing time for partcl to settle
by gravity.
Simple device, low maintenance.
Must be cleaned
manually.
Cross-sect area, HW,
lowers velocity.
Baffles spread flow
evenly.
GRAVITY SETTLING CHAMBERS:
MATH MODELS

Gas behaviour can be characterized by


limiting cases: plug flow, mixed flow.
Particle removal efficiency related to
residence time in chamber
distance to travel before hitting wall
terminal settling velocity

Baffled chamber
Block or Mixed Models
Average horizontal velocity Vh
Qgas
of gas: WidthH eight

Time for particle to travel in t residence


Length
flow direction: Vgas

h
Time for particle to settle: t
Vt
settling distance = tVterminal
SETTLING CHAMBER
CAPTURE EFFICIENCIES

Plug flow LengthVterminal


plug
HeightVgas

Mixed Flow LengthVterminal


mixed 1 exp
HeightVgas

mixed 1 exp plug


Efficiency & Particle
diameter relatonship
Replace terminal velocity with Stokes
Law eqn:
LgD 2 p
for plug flow
HVavg 18


mixed 1 exp plug
Example
Calculate efficiencies as a function of particle diameter
(hence terminal settling velocity) for the two models:
Height = 2 m
Length = 10 m
VAvg = 1 m/s
Calculate for 1, both models give same result.
Calculate for other diameters, results plotted in Fig 9.2
Plug flow and mixed flow efficiencies for gravity
settler, Example 9.1

Suitable only for


particle >50 m.
Design for smaller particles?
Increase efficiency by making L larger
(very long & expensive)
Making H bigger
Subdividing the chamber with horizontal
plates (makes cleaning difficult)
Lowering the Vavg (need larger cross-
sect area)
Increasing the g force???
Horizontal elutriators
Small gravity settlers
for partcle sampling.
Very slow air flow.
Microscopic
examination.
Problem 9.3
L = 7.5 m, H = 2.5 m, eff = 90%, Vavg =
1 m/s, Calculate Vt
THE IDEA!
Impose an external force
greater than gravity:
Centrifugal - CYCLONES
Electrostatic - ESP
CENTRIFUGAL COLLECTORS
Physics: If a body moves in a circular
path, radius r, circular velocity Vc,
angular velocity, = Vc/r
mVc2
Fcentrifugal mr 2
r

Example 9.2 shows the


magnitude of this force
compared to g.
Example 9.2
At 60 ft/s circular velocity and 1 ft
radius:
Fcentrifugal
112
Fgravity

With corresponding increase in


terminal velocity.
CYCLONES
Principles similar to settling chambers
Qgas
Vcircular
(Width Height ) of inlet duct

More complex geometry and flow patterns


If we use the Stokes law for settling velocity,
substituting centrifugal acceleration for gravitational
one:

Vc2 D 2 p
Vt (eqn 9.15)
18r
Example 9.3
Repeat Example 8.1: Compute the
terminal velocity in air of a spherical
particle with diameter 1 m, cyclone
diameter 2 ft and Vc = 60ft/s
For any unspecified particle, assume specific gravity of 2.0,
hence density = 2000 kg/m3 = 124.8 lbm/ft3.
T = 25C, = 1.8 x 10-5 kg/ms

Vc2 D 2 p
Vt
18r
Example 8.1: Compute the terminal
velocity in air of a spherical particle with
diameter 1 m.

From the back cover of the text book:


For any unspecified particle, assume
specific gravity of 2.0, hence density
= 2000 kg/m3 = 124.8 lbm/ft3.
T = 25C, = 1.8 x 10-5 kg/ms
( p a )
Vt gD 2

18
The answer is 112 times as large as the value in Ex 8.1!
Cyclones

Centrifugal force
generated by spinning of gas
Magnitude depends on
particle mass, gas velocity
within cyclone and cyclone
diameter
PM are thrown to the walls as
gas spirals upward
Separation efficiency depends
on centrifugal force exerted on
particles
Constructing a cyclone

Cyclone is the most widely used


device in any industry.
Figure 9.4 is a successful
design of a basic cyclone.
Consist of vertical body, dust
outlet at the conical bottom, gas
enters thru rectangular inlet
Cyclone
-Theory of collection efficiency
-Cyclone types (high efficiency, conventional
and high throughout)
-Design considerations pertaining to
collection efficiency, pressure drop
-Cyclones in parallel and series
Efficiency of cyclone

NDcycloneVt
plug
WiVc


mixed 1 exp plug

N number of turns for the gas


in the cyclone before exit
CYCLONES

If we substitute the Stokes law for settling


velocity:

ND Vc
2

plug p
(eqn 9.18)
9Wi
Example 9.4
Compute the efficiency- diameter
relationship for a cyclone that has Wi =
0.5 ft, Vc = 60 ft/s, N = 5, 1
The Cut diameter, Dcut
Particle diameter at 50% device
collection efficiency.
Also called d50 in other books.
CYCLONE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY
ESTIMATE OF CUT DIAMETER

Using Stokes region expression for Vt and plug flow


model (neither of which are particularly good representations
of the actual situation) we can obtain:

9Wi
Dcut
2NVc p

This turns out to be a reasonable estimate of Dcut


Empirical data on standard cyclones is required for
more precision
Example 9.5
Estimate the cut diameter for a cyclone
with Wi = 0.5 ft, Vc = 60 ft/s, N = 5

9Wi
Dcut
2NVc p
Typical Cyclone Dcut
Typically, Dcut = 5
um.
Works well for
sawdust from wood
shops, wheat grains
etc.
Not for sticky
particles like tar
droplets.
For smaller particles, what is
our option?
Make Wi smaller or Vc larger.
Making Vc larger expensive, high P drop,
pressure drop is proportional to V2
Making Wi smaller, gas flow decrease
(suitable for research or gas sampling
purposes)
Split flow into multiple cyclones to keep V
constant
Arrange large number of small cyclones
together MULTICLONE
Figure 9.5 de Nevers

Multiclone
MULTICLONE
Repeat Example 9.5
for Wi = 0.125 ft, find
Dcut.
Collection efficiency vs
particle diameter
Empirical collection efficiency vs particle diameter
behaviour of typical cyclones:

r2

1 r 2

D
r
Dcut
Eqn 9.21
Eqn 9.18 plug
flow and
Figure 9.6 de Nevers
Stokes law (Example 9.6)

Eqn 9.19
mixed flow and
Stokes law

Eqn 9.21
empirical
DIMENSIONAL RATIOS IN CYCLONE
DESIGN

Optimize cyclone dimensions for


increased efficiency vs reduced
pressure drop
General types:
High efficiency
Conventional
High throughput
Empirical efficiency for standard dimension
cyclone
Figure 9-3b is used to determine the colletion
efficiency of particles larger or smaller than dcut.
Example 9.7
How long does the gas spend in the
high centrifugal force field near the wall
where a particle has a good chance of
being captured?
Pressure drop
Velocity head, K = 8
gVi 2
Pressure drop Pin Pout K eqn 9.22
2

Example 9.8
A cyclone has an inlet velocity of 60 ft/s and a reported
pressure loss of 8 velocity heads (K = 8). What is the
pressure loss in pressure units?

gVi 2
Pressure drop K
2

Hydroclones
Figure 4.4, Cooper & Alley
Figure 4.3, Cooper & Alley
CYCLONE DESIGN

Standard dimensional ratios based on accumulated


experience are available for specific objectives (high
efficiency, high flow throughput, or a compromise)
Cyclone manufacturer may provide empirical Dcut vs
Qgas and pressure drop vs Qgas data
An iterative (trial and error) procedure required to find
Dcyclone for desired collection efficiency
Given gas flow with known particle size distribution,
choose Dcyclone , calculate collection efficiency for each
particle size and overall, repeat.
ESP
Principle: charge the particles,
use electrostatic force to attract
them to wall
Figure 9.7 de Nevers
Sketch of
ESP
History of ESP
In 1907 Dr. Frederick G. Cottrell patent a device for
charging particles and then collecting them
through electrostatic attraction the first electrostatic
precipitator. He was then a professor of chemistry at
the University of California, Berkeley.
Also called Cottrell precipitators

Cottrell first applied the device to


the collection of sulfuric acid mist
and lead oxide fume emitted from
various acid-making and smelting
activities.
ESP Industry
Large power plants
ESP costing up to
$30 million.
Efficiency 90 95%
in 1960s; now up to
99.5%
Cake removal
Solid cakes are removed by rapping the
plates at regular intervals using mechanical
or eletromagnetic rapper.
Cake fall into hopper.
If particles are liq (e.g. sulfuric acid mist), they
run down the plate & drip off. Plates are often
replaced by circular pipes with wire in the
middle.
Wet ESP have a film of water flowing down
the pipes (no rapping).
Electrostatic Precipitators
ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS
Each point in space has some electrical potential, V.
Electrical potential change form place to place, then there
is an electric field, E.
Electric potential is related to the amount of work a charge
can do
V applied voltage
Field strength, E
x distance
40 kV kV
e.g. 400 (Unit V/m)
0.1 m m
This is field strength near plates.
MV
Higher at the wire, because of geometry (5 10 )
m
Maximum charge on particles:

q 3
0 E0 (eqn 9.23)
D 2

2
q : charge , coulombs
: dielectric constant relative to free space (permittiv ity)
C
0 : 8.85 E 12 for free space
V .m
air :1.0006, particles : 4 6
D : particle diameter, m
E0 : local field strength, V/m
Example 9.9
A 1 m particle with dielectric constant of 6 has reached its
equilibrium charge in an ESP at a place where the field
strength is 300 kV/m. How many electronic charges has it?


q 3 0 D E0
2

2
6
C
0 : 8.85E 12 for free space
V .m
E0 300 V/m
Drift velocity
(I.e. terminal settling velocity under electrostatic force)

Force on particle: F = q Ep

F 3 0 D E0 E p
2
(eqn 9.25)
2
E0 E p E

Putting eqn 8.3 = eqn 9.25, the resulting terminal


settling velocity (with Stokes law for drag force):


D 0 E 2

2
Vt w

Example 9.10
Calculate the drift velocity for particle in
Ex. 9.9.

The drift velocity is velocity when particles reach collection plates


(just like terminal velocity). Values range from 0.04 0.2
Deriving the efficiency eqn:

A Lh (9.27)
Q HhVavg (9.28)
Q
So, Vavg
Hh
LVt
Substitute into 9.4 (block flow),
HVavg
Aw
(eqn 9.29) for block flow
Q
Aw
1 exp (eqn 9.30) for mixed flow
Q
Efficiency: Deutsch-Anderson eqn

The eqn relating efficiency to particle size:


Aw
1 exp mixed flow (Eqn 9 - 30)
Q
where,
A area of the collection plates, m 2
w drift velo city of the charged particles, m/s
Q flow rate of the gas stream, m3 /s

Never use the block flow eff. for ESP!


Example 9.11
Compute the efficiency-diameter relations for
an ESP with dielectric constant 6 and A/Q =
0.2 min/ft.
Example 9.12
Estimate w for coal
containing 1% S at
99.5% eff.
Example 9.13
Our ESP has a measured eff of 90%. We
wish to upgrade to 99%. By how much must
we increase the collecting area?
Modified D-A eqn
w is proportional to D.
Thus, big particles get removed first, remaining
particles gets smaller & harder to remove.
Some designers use the modified D-A eqn to take
this phenomenon into account:

k
wA
mixed 1 exp modified D A , k ~ 0.5
Q
Example 9.14.
Repeat Ex. 9.13 using Modified D-A
eqn.
Particle distribution in ESP
Uniform particle distribution is vital.
Nonuniform distribution lowers eff.
ESP Performance and cake
resistivity
ESP works well with medium-resistivity.
Voltage-distance relation for
different ash resistivities
Low resistivity ash:
small V in the
cake , weak
attraction to
collection plate,
re-entrainment .
E.g. carbon black

High resistivity ash:


large V in the
cake, small V in
the wire, poor
charging, low .
E.g. sulfur
ESP Performance and cake
resistivity
ESP works well with medium-resistivity.
High resistivity ash:
- large V in the cake, small V in the wire, poor
charging, low . E.g. sulfur
- electron flow within cake, violent back corona blow
the cake off the plate.
Low resistivity ash:
- small V in the cake , weak attraction to collection
plate, re-entrainment . E.g. carbon black
ESP Performance and cake resistivity

Resistivity = 1/conductivity
If it is a poor conductor, it has high resistivity.
Remedies for low resistivity ash: nothing
much can be done.
Remedies for high resistivity ash:
- Higher temperatures, hot ESP (improves
volume conductivity)
- Gas conditioning, add hygroscopic
components to gas to improve surface
conductivity. SO3 for basic coal ash, NH3 for
acidic cement ash.
Wet ESP
WESP or wet ESP operates with saturated air
streams (100% relative humidity). One type of WESP
uses a vertical cylindrical tube with centrally-located
wire electrode (gas flowing upward) with water sprays
to clean the collected particulate from the collection
surface (plates, tubes).
The collected water and particulate forms a wet film
slurry that eliminates the resistivity issues associated
with dry ESP's.
Another type of WESP (used for coke-oven gas
detarring) uses a falling oil film to remove collected
material.
End of lecture on Wall Collecting Devices

TUTORIAL TIME!
Additional Questions
1. Our ESP is collecting 95% of the particles in our waste gas. A
salesperson now offers us an additive to add to the gas that will
change the resistivity of the collected cake of particles, thus
doubling of drift velocity. so what the new collection efficiency?
2. We are constructing a new multiple hearth roaster, for which
we plan to install an ESP to control the particles in the exhaust
gas. The gas flow will be 10,000 ft3/min . Regulations required
us to capture 99.5 % of particles in the exhaust gas. Estimate
the required ESP collecting area.
3. Current efficiency of our ESP is 95%, now we need to increase
efficiency to 99%. How much voltage we need to increase to
archive the target.
Example: Determine particle removal
efficiencies (a) 1 large cyclone (b) 64
small cyclones
Solution: Use eqn 9-4, then refer to Figure 9-3.
1/ 2
9b d
d 50 then calculate
2N v d 50
e i p

Q = 7 m3/s
Q Q T = 77C
vi
A bh 2m

Width of entrance, b = D/4 Ne = 5


Height of entrance, h = D/2 =1.5 g/cm3
dp = 10m

Ne eqn is not in syllabus. Value for Ne will be given. For the eqn, refer to other books e.g. Lapple.
(b) 64 cyclones with diameters 24 cm.
Compare the efficiencies.
Example 9-4 Determining plate area
requirements for an ESP

Infos given:
Gases flowing at 10 m3/s
Particle diameter, dp = 0.5 m

The question is:


Determine the plate area required with efficiency
(a) 90% (b) 99%

Aw
1 exp
Q
ESP
Control of primary particulates : ESPs
Introduction and overview of ESP
Theory of ESP operation, corona, Deutsch equation,
drift velocity, total electric force
Design considerations, particulate resistivity
Plates and wires, removal of particulate dust, power
consumption
Flue gas conditioning
Fabric filters
Control of primary particulates :
Fabric filters
Introduction and overview of fabric
filters
Theory of fabric filter operation,
pressure drop, fabrics
Design of shaker and reverse air
baghouse filters, maximum filtering
velocity, no. of compartments
Pulse-jet baghouse filter
Particulate scrubbers
Control of primary particulates:
Particulate scrubbers
Introduction to scrubbing equipment: spray
chamber scrubbers, cyclone spray
scrubbers, orifice and wet-impingement
scrubbers, venture scrubbers
Wet scrubber theory and design, spray
chambers
Pressure loss in venture scrubbers,
contacting power approach in scrubber
design