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This machine design entitled HAMMERHEAD TOWER CRANE was

created to analyze and generate a theoretical design and specifications


with accordance to physical laws and theories. It aims to determine the
forces, displacement, stress, and reactions using different methods. It
also tackles the idea of motion and its reaction to different parts. Using
three different methods of analysis, the researcher have determined the
factors and variables that generally affect the system. With the use of
these methods, he generated a CAD design of the system. He also used a
simulation for the stress, displacement and distortion factors that affect
the system, and make a computation for the design and analysis of the
entire system. With these factors given and answered, he produced
certain specifications and aspects for the crane to operate efficiently.
Summarizing the total design and analysis, the crane system was
efficient through theoretical and simulated analysis. The researcher
recommended having a visual presentation of the unified solutions and
formulas. He also wishes to have an actual design analysis to help
furthermore in this study.
The tower crane,of aheavy
Transportation modern form
loads is of balance
often crane
called that
as the
consistchallenging
most of the sametask basicinparts
an of a movable
industry, since crane,
it hascan
a
reach up to 265 feet, out to 230 feet, and lift a total of
high volume 20
approximately oftons.
life-threatening risk on
Fixed to the ground anda concrete
severe
damage to properties.
slab (and sometimes attached Theto crane
the sidessystem, when
of structures),
tower cranes
properly often give
utilized, all the
thebest combination
threats wouldof lower
height
and lifting capacity
efficiently and theand cost areinvolved
used in the
in construction
the construction of tall
buildings. The base is then attached to the mast which
can bethe
gives reduced as height.
crane its well. Further the mast is attached to
Athecrane
slewing system,
unit (gearorand simply
motor)crane, is a the
that allows device
craneor to
machine
rotate. On used
top to
of lift
theorslewing
lower aunit
material
there arevertically and
three main
parts which
move are: the while
it horizontally long horizontal
being hangedjib (working
around. arm),
The
shorterwas
crane counter-jib,
usuallyandused the operator's cab.
in construction industry,
commonly known as transport elevator.
Until
The 1949,
Thefirst cranes
craneunequivocal
for liftingused in loads
literary
heavy construction
evidence could
was inventedfor thelift
by
the Ancient
vertically
existence Greeks
butthehad
of no inhorizontal
compound the latesystem
pulley 6th century
appearsBC.
movement, andin
theThe
materialsarchaeological
wereProblems
Mechanical record
manually (Mech. shows
carried that
afterno being
18, 853a32-853b13) later
than c.515
dropped.
attributed to BC
With distinctive
Hans
AristotleLiebherrs cuttings
(384322 forbut
innovation,
BC), both
the lifting
tower
perhaps
tongs
crane
composed and
could Lewis
atnot
a only irons
slightlyswing begin
later to Around
materials
date. appear on stone
horizontally,
the but
same
blocks
also
time,beblockof Greek
sizes attemples.
transported inGreek
parts and Since
fullythese
temples holes
assemble
began point
to itself
match at
theatconstruction
their the use predecessors
archaic of asite.
lifting
Hisdevice,
again, and
design, thesince
TK-10,
indicating theywas
that are
thea
to be
machine
more found either
that had
sophisticated theabove
slewing
compound the center
unit
pulley on of
must thegravity
have bottom,
foundof
itsthe
wayblock,
allowing tothe orconstruction
entire
Greek incrane
pairstoequidistant
rotate, with
sites by afrom
then. a point
horizontal jib
onover
top. the
It wascenter of gravity,
presented at the they are regarded
Frankfurt Trade Fairby in
archaeologists
1949, but new designsas thecame positive evidence
to the market required
almost
for the existence
immediately after itsof the crane.
unveiling.
Gravity Center
There are mainly four kinds of lifting principles
center of gravity of an entity is the point where the mass of that thing is
The
calculated to be concentrated. The center is largely a vital location that determines
for crane systems, which influence the
the calculated mobility of a crane system.
system's mobility and safety in course of
Leverage
The principle of leverage is largely used in crane systems to lift the loads and the
operating the crane systems.
principle works on the gravity center. The upper part of crane systems changes its
location according to the center.
Gravity Center
Stability
In order to ensure the system is being operated with the utmost stability on
Leverage
ground, the crane operator should think of the relationship between loads, boom,
and its Stability
radius. All these elements create an enduring stability while operating
crane systems.
Structural
Structural truthfulness truthfulness
The parts of a crane system such as crawler, boom section, outrigger supports, and
attachment are supposed to be very prominent sections of a system that make a
structural truthfulness. These parts are essential to be incorporated carefully so as
to make sure the system is being operated safely and securely.
Loads to be considered during the operation such as:
Find the external forces and their combination,
Principal loads acting on the structure for the motionless elevator. This includes:
Normal operation load: service load + accessories
which act on the structure.
Self weight: Non-operating crane
Loads due to vertical movements:
Displacement, stress and reaction calculation
Accelerations or decelerations
Vertical impacts
of each of the components applying the
Loads due to horizontal movements:
adequate calculation process.
Accelerations or decelerations
Centrifugal force
Lateral effects
Impact effects
Loads due to changes in climate:
Wind and temperature effects
Various loads:
Dimensioning of parts
The tower crane usually has the following
parts.
Base
The Mast or the Tower
The Slewing Unit
Long horizontal jib
Machine House
Operators cabin
Hook and hoist unit
From
The this,
areaweneeded
assumefor
thatthe crane to operate is one
of the necessary Hpoints
floor = 3.2
tomconsider and check.
Most tower cranesHtotal = 80 mtheir working arm on
derived
Then,
the area of perspective projects. Thus, its range

and height considers the
No. of floors= section where it should

be installed. From accessing such area, it
prevents certain accidents and 80
danger that may
No. of floors=
happen in the site. 3.2
According to the standards of flooring of
No. of floors=
rooms, the height of the25slab
floorsand the ceiling
should not be less than 2.75 meters, with quarter
Theofcrane
a meter foroperate
could ceilings.
with a rise of 25 floor building.
MOMENT
EQUATIONFORMULA

Given:
(in Equilibrium)
mload= 20 tons = 18,143.7 kg
g= 9.8066 m/s2 = 32.2 ft/s2
LOAD IN SIMPLE mcw= 22.5 tons = 20,411.66 kg
BEAM ( = 32,894.4377 kN=87
LT(horizontal) m m =30,247.7588
285.433 ft kN m 2646.6789 kN m
+ ) LT(vertical) = 80 m = 262.467 ft

TOTAL
NOSTRUCTURE
LOAD IN SOLUTION
SIMPLE BEAM 17,414.7017 kN m Wload=mg
16, 013.5188 kN m 1401.1829 kN m
( = 0) Wload =(18,143.7 kg)(9.8066 m/s2)
Wload=177,928 N or
DEAD LOAD Wload= 177.928 kN
And BENDING
Wcw= mg3305.568571 kN m
( = 8 + 4 )
Wcw= (20,411.66 kg)(9.8066 m/s2)
Wcw= 200,168.985 N or
Wcw= 200.168985 kN
From the given dimensions and specifications,
the researcher had solved the different forces
acting on the system, as well as its direction.
With the use of different methods and analysis,
he had determined the load deformations and
effects of these applied forces onto the system.
Apparently, he also discovered the best type of
metal structure that can be used and applied for
the design. Indicating and considering the
factors that affect the system, via simulation, he
can generalized that this design can be used for
actual development.

In
In this
this design,
scheme,the theresearcher has toanalysis
finite element create isa
tower crane design
accomplished due tothat can combinations
this load lift a load ofand 20
tons, with the dimensions of length and height,
then
87 m the andmaximum stress values
80 m, respectively. As are
the compared
loads are
with
applied theinstantly,
permissible
the stress
effectsvalues.
due to Maximum
the time
variation
stress of were neglected.
optimized structure increases slightly,
In
lessthe system,
than as the bar
the material are placed
allowable in anrigidity
stress; order,
the force acting on the main beam is balanced
of
by the optimized
force flow structure
from each bar. increases
Thus, whenslightly.
the
Optimization resultsof compression,
bar is under the effect indicate that the
the other
is under tension.
combination of The load element
finite combinations that
analysis
include
technology horizontal loads resulting
to establish from vertical
a multi-objective
and inertia loads applied on the main beam
optimization.
causes stresses and sag.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crane_(machine)#
Tower_crane
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crane_(machine)
http://www.washington.edu/news/2010/01/07/cr
ane-installation-a-milestone-in-construction-of-
molecular-engineering-building/
https://grabcad.com/library/tower-crane-3/files
https://grabcad.com/library/tower-crane-cabin
Solved Problems in Machine Design book by
Capote and Mandawe