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UNIT-III

HIGHWA CONSTRUCTIO
Y N
PAVEMENT
S
highway pavement is a structure consisting of superimposed
layer s of d material s abov e th e natur al soil sub-
whos e processe grade,
primar y functio n i s to distribut e the applie d vehic le loads
to the sub- gra de. The pavement structure should be able to
provide a surface of acceptable riding quality, adequate skid
resistance, favourable light reflecting characteristics, and low
noi se polluti on. The ultimate aim i s t o ensur e that he transmitted
stresses du e to whe el load ar e sufficientl y reducet d, so that
will no t exceed bearin g capaci tyo f the subgra de. they
Two types of ts ar e generall y recognize d as g this
pavemen
purpos e, name ly flexible pavements d rigi d pavemen servin
ts.
an
PAVEMENT
S
REQUIREMENTS OF A
PAVEMENT
An idea l paveme nt shoul d mee t th e following requirements
Sufficiently thicknes s to distribut e: th e whee l load stresses to a safe
valu e n the sub- gra de soil,

oStructurall y stro ngt o withstan d al l types f o es imposed upo n it,


Adequate coefficient of n to nt stress ng of

frictio
Smooth surfa ce t o provi de comfo rt t o roa dskiddi
preve use rs evevehicles,
n at h speed,
Produ ce least noise from moving hig
Dust provehicles,
of surfac e so th at tra ct safety is n ot impaire d by reducing
visibility,
Impervious surfac e, os at sub- gra de soil i s well protected, and
Lon
g n life h thw maintenan ce cost.
desig wit lo
TYPES OF
PAVEMENTS
The pavements can be classified based on the
structural performance into two, flexible
pavements and rigid paveme nts . In flexible
pavements, wheel loads are transferred by
gra in- to- n conta ct of he aggrega te through
grai
he granula r structure t
t
TYPE OF PAVEMENT
T T T T"r) -cr A
r'\T T I.. T"T I\ TT"T T
S S
'">

Subgrdo (E><lUng 9oUJ

TypicI Rigid Pvement


FFLEXIBLE RIGID PAVEMENT
PAVEMENT
FLEXIBLE
PAVEMENTS
Flexible pavemen ts will transmi t wheel load stresses to
th e lower layers by gra in- to- n transfe r throug h the
point s o f conta ct in th e grai r structur e. The
load actin g on the pavemen granula
t willwheel
be distribute d to a
wider area, and the stress decreases with the dep th .
Taking advantage of this stress distribution
characteris tic, flexible pavement s normall y ha s many
layer s. , th e design o f flexible paveme nt uses the
Hence
conce pt of d system .
layere
FLEXIBLE
PAVEMENTS
TYPES
T TTn r'\T
PAVEMENT
TTT,. #,T,Y-,TATn

OF S
Fleiib pavem -surface Rigid
le ent - pavement
T dresslr\9
.c -surrecourse
,j
m
--base course
., concrete
1 slob
,..,!ormotlon Jeve1--
.......
--su
o.l-"'.....i....-:u_-1': base--
;e..-naturol
rormotion--i-_.:..-- I> 1m En!YlPli4il
Pt11101n1. o
Layers m Flexible Pavement

SO mm

120 mm

250 mm

300 mm

SOOmm

LAYER2

:,i::i5
=1l
/l/1.r/l'I' /I/ // /I .l'/11 I

A) LARGE Bo..lLOER B) LARGE SIZE C) STotEAGGREGATES


SO JUNG STOl'ES

.AYER 1

Stress Distribution Through Granular Layers


TYPICAL LAYERS OF A FLEXIBLE
PAVEMENT
Typical layers of a conventional flexible pavement
includes seal coat, surface course, tack coat, binder
cour se, prime coat, base course, su b- base course,
compacte d sub- grad e, an d natur al su b- grad e al Coat :
Seal coat s ai n surface nt usedSeto wat er- proof
th e surfa ce thi d to provitreatme
de skid resistan ce.
an
Tack Coat : Tack coat is a very light application of
asphal t, usuall y aspha lt emulsio n dilute d wit h wat er. It
provide s prope r bondin g betwee n tw o laye r of binder
course and must be thin, uniformly cover the entire
surfa ce, an d set very fast.
TYPICAL LAYERS OF A FLEXIBLE
PAVEMENT
Prime Coat: Prime coat is n applicatio n o f low viscous
cutbac k bitume n to an aabsorben t surface like granular
bases on which binder layer is placed. It provides
bondin g betwee n tw o layers. Unlike tac k coat, prime
coat penetrate s int o th e layer below, plug s th e voids,
an d for ms a wat er tigh t surfa ce.
Surface course
Surface course is the layer directly in contact with
traffic loads and generally contains superior quality
materia ls. They are usually constructed with dense
grade d aspha lt concrete(AC).
TYPICAL LAYERS OF A FLEXIBLE
PAVEMENT
It es characteristic s suc h as n, smoothnes s, drainage , etc
provid
Also it will prevent the entrance frictio . of surface
of excessive quantities
wate r int o th e underlyin g base, su b- base an d su b- grad e It must be
toug h to resist th e distortio n und er traffic an d provid, e a smooth and
skid- resista nt ridin g surface, It mu st be wate r pro of to protec t
enti re ba se an d sub- gra de fro m th e weakeni ng effec t of ethe
r
wat .
Binder course
This layer es the bul k of he asphal t concre te structure. It's chief
provid
purpose is to distribute loadt to the base course The binder course
generall y consists of s havin g le ss asphal t an d doesn't require
qualit y s a h as aggregate
he surfac e e, so replacin g a pa t of the
cour seb yhig
he t er courcours
se result s n mor e economica r l surface
n.
t bind i desig
TYPICAL LAYERS OF A FLEXIBLE
PAVEMENT
Base course
The base cours e i s th e layer of l immediatel y beneat h th e surfac e of
bind er cours e an d i t provide smateria l load distributio n an d contribut es
the sub- surfac e drainag e I t maadditiona
y be d of crushed ston e, d to
and oth er untreat ed or compose
ed materi als. crushe slag,
stabiliz
Sub- Base course
The su b- se cour se s the laye r of al h the ba se cour se d the
primarbay function s i e to provid emateri structur beneat
al an , and
, improv e drainage
reduc e th e narof es m the s b-support ue in the paveme n t re If
the baseintrusio e i s opefin fro d, the n the sub-
n grade grad se structu
se wit h mor e es
serve acours
sa r betwee n sub- gra de an d th e basecour course A ub- bafin can
se cour se is
n ot alway sfille
neede d o r used. For example, a ba nt s d over a
qualit y, stiff sub- gra de may n ot nee d the paveme
additiona lconstructe
featur es offere high
d y a sub -
b se may n otb e provid ed.
ba se cour se. In suc h situation s, sub- ba se cour
TYPICAL OF A PAVEMEN
LAYERS FLEXIBLE T

Sub-
grade
The top soil or sub- grad e is a layer of natural
soil prepared to receive the stresses from the
layer s above. It s essential t a t n o time soi
sub- grade i overstressthaed. It should l
compacted tois the desirable density, near be
optimu m moistur e nt . the
conte
Subgrade (Existing Soil)
Subgrade (Existing
Soil)

Load

Load

'
m
Rigid Pavement

2003 Steve Muench


'
Subgrade

2003 Steve Muench

FLEXIB T
RIGI
RIGID
PAVEMENTS
Rigid pavements have sufficien t flexur al strength
to transmi t th e whee l load stresses to a wider
ar ea below.
Compare d to flexible pavement, d pavements
rigi
ar e place d eithe r directl y on th e prepare d sub -
grade or on a single layer of granular or
stabilized materi al. e ther e i s onl y on e layer
of materi al betweeSinc
n the concret e an d th e sub -
grad e, thi s layer can be called as base or sub -
ba se cour se.
RIGID
PAVEMENTS
Paving Quality
Concrete (PQC)

. ' '
'
'' Sub,base Course I Dry Lean
Concrete (OLC)
.. .
. -- .

.' -
' ' , ,.
, ''I
I

: l ..: Prepared
.-. .
'
., ,
.: Subgrade

Compo of Cement
nents Concrete
PAVEMENT
MATERIALS
Soils
Pavements are a conglomeration of materi als.
These materials , r associated propertie s, and
thei
thei r interaction s determine he properti es of
tresultan t the
nt. Thus, a good understanding
paveme
of thes e materials , ho w the y ar e characterized,
and how they perform is fundamental to
understanding paveme nt . The materials which
ar e used in th e constructio n of y ar e of
inten se intere st to the highwa yhighwa
engine er .
SUB GRADE
SOIL

Soil is an accumulation or deposit of earth material,


derive d naturall y fro m th e disintegratio n of rock s or
deca y o f vegetation , th at ca n be excavate d readil y with
pow er equipme nt in th e field or d by gentle
mechanical means in the laborato disintegrate
ry . The supporting
soil beneath pavement an d its special unde r cours es is
called sub grade Undisturbed soil beneath the
pavemen t is calle . d natur al su b gra de. Compacte d sub
grad e is e soil compacted by controlle d movemen t of
heav y th rs .
compacto
SUB GRADE
SOIL
SOIL
TYPES
The wide range of soil types available as
highway construction materials have made it
obligator y on th e pa rt fo e highwa y engineer
to identify d classify th nt soils.
an differe
Broadly, the soil types can be categorized as
Laterite soil, Moorum / red soil, Desert sands,
Alluvial soil, Clay g Black cotton soil.
includin
SOIL
TYPES
SOIL
TYPES
SOIL
TYPES
Gravel: These ar e coars e materia ls wit h particl e size unde r 2.3 6 mm
wit h littl e or o fines contributi ng t o cohesion of als.
Mooru m: n se ar e produc ts of materi
n an d weatherin g of
pavemen t roc Thek. y the se decompositio
ar e r to grave l t presenthe
ce of
high er conte Visuall
nt of fines simila excep
Silts: These ar e. r tha n sand , bright er in col r as compared o clay,
finee cohesion.
an d exhibit littl n a lum p of o ty t l d h water,
Whed an d tappe d a shin y sil ce soi
alternatel y squeeze makmixe wit
es its appearanc e
th us dilatan cy is a ic propert y of surfa
h soil. ,
Clays: These ar specif
e fine r tha n silts. suc y soils exhib it stickiness, high
strengt h whe n dry , d show n o dilatan Claye cy. Black cotton soil an d other
expansiv e claysan it swellin g an d shrinkag e properti es. Paste fclay
exhib
wit h wate r whe n rubbe d in betwee n finger s leaves n, o h s i
observed for silts. stai whic not
TESTS ON
SOIL
Sub gra de il is n integr al pa rt of the d paveme nt structu re a s i t provides
so ato the pavement
the support roa from benea th . The sub grade soil and its
properties are important in the design of pavement structu re . The main
functio n of he sub gra de is o give adequat e suppo rt t o th e pavemen t d for
thi s th e t b grad e tshoul d possess sufficien t y unde r adversane climatic
and loadisu ng ns. Therefor e, i t i s verystabilit
essential to evaluate
sub gra deconditio
b y conducti ng tests. the
The tests used to evaluat e the strengt h propertie s of soils ma y be broadly
divided in to thr ee grou ps:
Shear tests
Bearing tests
Penetratio n tests
CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO
TEST
California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test was developed by the California Division of
Highwa y a s a metho d o f classifying an d evaluatin g soil- su b grad e an d base course
materials for flexible paveme nts . CBR test, an empirical te st, has been used to
determin e th e materi al propertie s for pavement desig n. l tests measur e the
strengt h o f the materi al an d are n ot a tr ue representatio n o f t he resilien t modul us. I t is
Empirica
a penetratio n test n a standar d piston , g an are a o f 3 in2 (or 50 mm
diameter ), is use d to penetrat ehavin
wherei th e soil a t a standar d rat e o f 1.2 5 mm/minu te.
pressur e u p to a penetratio n o f 12.5 m an d it's rati o to th e bearin Theg value of
standar d crushe d m roc k is termed as th e CBR. In most cases, R decrease a s as the
penetratio n increas es. The ratio t 2.5 mm penetratio n iCB s used s the CBR. In some case,
the rati o a t 5 m m m ay be a er n th at a t 2.5 mm. Iaf thi s occur s, the rati o a t 5 mm
shoul d be use d. e CB R is a tha
great measure o f resistanc e o f a materi al t o penetratio n of
standar d plunge
Th r und er controll ed densit y nd moistu re conditio ns. The test procedure
shoul d be ly adher ed if h degr
a ee o f reproducibilit y i s desired. The CBRtest
be conducte
strict d in r e- moulde
higd or undisturbe d specimen in th e laborato ry. Thmay e test
simpl e and ha s n extensively investigat ed for field correlations f flexible pavement is
s requireme nt .
thicknesbee o
CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO
TEST
PLATE BEARING
TEST
Plate bearin g test is use d to evaluat e th e suppo rt capabilit y of u b-
bases and in some cases, complete pavemen t Data from s thegrades, tests are
applicab le for he design of h flexible an d rigi. d paveme nts. In pla te bearing
t
test, a compressi ve stress ibot
s applie d to he soil or n t er throug h rigid
t
plat es relativel y larg e size an d the deflection spaveme layd fo r variou s stress
re measure
valu es. Th e n level s generall y limitea d to a low valu e, ni the ord er of
1.25 to 5deflectio
mm an d so th i e deformatio n cause d may b e partl y elastic and partly
plastic due to compaction of the stressed mass with negligible plastic
deformatio n. The plate- bearing test has been devised to evaluate the
supporti n g er of ub grad es or y other n t er b y usin g plat es of
pow er . s
larg er diamet an paveme lay
The plate- bearin g test s originall y mean t to find the modulu s of b grade
wa
reaction in the Westergaard's analysis for wheel load stresses suin cement
concre te paveme nts .
PLATE BEARING
TEST
PAVEMENT
MATERIALS
Aggregates
Aggregate i s a collective ter m for th e miner al materia ls suc h as
san d, gravel , an d crushe d ston e tha t ar e used with a binding
mediu m (such as , bitume n, Portlan d cemen t, lime, etc.)
form compoundwater materials (such as bituminous concrete to and
Portland cement concret e). By volume, aggregate generally
accoun ts for 9 2 to 9 6 percen t fo us concret e and about
7 0 to 80 percen t fo Bitumino d cemen t te. Aggregate i s also
Portlan
used for bas e an d sub- base courseconcre
s for both flexible an d rigid
pavemen ts. es can eith er be al or ed.
Aggregat natur manufactur
AGGREGAT
ES
DESIRAB PROPERTI
LE ES
Strength
The aggregat es use d in to p layers a re subjecte d to (i) ss action due t o traffic wheel
load , (ii) r an d tear, ( i) crushin g. r a hig h qualit y pavemen t, th e aggregates
Stre
Wea d s hig h ii ce tFo
o crushin g, an d to withstan d the stresses du e to traffic
shoull posse d resistan

whee loa .

Hardness
The aggregates used in the surface course are subjected to constant rubbing or
abrasio n du e to movin g traf fic. The aggregate s shoul d be har d enoug h to resist
abrasiv e n cause d by he movemen ts o f traff ic. he abrasiv e n is sever
thee
steel tyred vehicles
actio tes over the aggregate sTexpose d a tactio
the top surface when
Toughnessmov .
Resistance f th e aggregat es to impac t is termed as ess. Aggregates use d in the
o
pavemen t shoul d be able o resis t e effect cause d by th e jumpin g o f th e steel tyred
toughn
wheel s from on e particl t e to th r a t differen t ls causes e impac t on the
aggregates anothe leve sever
DESIRABLE
PROPERTIES
Shape of

aggregates
Aggregate s h happe n t o fall n a particula r size e ma y have d, cubical,
angula r, flaky or
whic d particle
i s. rangt is evident that the flaky an d elongate d particles
rounde
will have lesselongate
strength andI durability when compared with cubical, angular or
rounde d particle s f th e same aggrega te. e too flaky an d too muc h elongated
aggregateos shoul d be d a s fHenc
ar as le.
Adhesion wit h avoide possib

bitumen
The aggregate s use d i n bituminou s pavement s shoul d hav e less affinit y wit h water
whe n compare d wit h bituminou s als, otherwis e the bitumino u s g on the
aggregat e will be d o in presenc e f wat er .
materi coatin
Durability strippe o
The propert y of es to withstand adver se action o f weath er is called soundness.
The aggregateaggregat
s ar e subjected to t he physical an d chemic al action o f rai n an d bottom
water , impurities ther e- n an d th at o f atmospher e, hence it is le tha t he road
iaggregate s use d in he constructio n shoul d be nd enoug hdesirab
o nd t

tweatherin g action sou t withsta the


AGGREGATE
TESTS
In order to decide the suitability of the aggregate for use in
pavemen t n, following tests are carried

constructio
out :
Crushin g test
Abrasion test
Impa ct test
Soundne ss test
Shape test
Specific gravi ty an d wat er absorptio n test
Bitumen adhesio n test
AGGREGATE
TESTS

Crushin g test
On e of th e mode l in whic h paveme nt material
can fail is by crushin g under compressive ss.
A test is standardized by stre
IS: 2386 p art - IV and
used to determine the crushing strength of
aggregat es The aggregate crushing value
provides . relative measure of resistance to
a er graduall y applie d crushin g load.
crushin g und
The
CRUSHING
TEST
ABRASION
TEST
Abrasion test is carried out to test the hardnes s property
of s an d to decid e whethe r the y ar e suitable
aggregate
for differen t pavement os Angeles
n work s. L
constructio
abrasio n test is a preferre d on e for carrying ou t the
hardnes s propert y an d ha s been standardize d in India
(IS:238 6 pa rt- V).
I The principl e f s Lo es abrasion
o
test is to find the percentage wearAngel
due to relative
rubbin g actio n betwee n th e aggregat e an d steel balls
used a s abrasive ge.
char
ABRASION
TEST
AGGREGATE
TESTS

Impac t test
The aggregate impact test is carried out to
evalua te the resistan ce to impa ct of es.
aggregat
Aggregates to be use d for wearin g course , the
impac t valu e shouldn' t exceed 3 0 perce nt. For
bitumino u s m th e maximu m permissible
valu e i s 3macada
5 percen t. r Water boun d macadam
base courses theFomaximum permissible value
define d by IRC i s 4 0 percent
IMPA T TES
C T
AGGREGATE
TESTS

Soundne ss test
Soundness st i s intende d to stud y the resistance
te
of aggregates to weathering action, by
conducting accelerated weathering test cycles.
The Porou s es subjected to freezin g and
thawin g aggregat
ar e likely to disintegrat e premature ly.
To ascertai n th e durabilit y of suc h aggregates,
th ey are subjected to an accelerate d soundness
test a s specied in IS: 2386 p art - V.
AGGREGATE
TESTS
Shape tests
The particl e shap e o f e aggregat e mas s s determined
by he percenta th geo f flaky an d elongate
i d particl es in it.

tAggregates which are flaky or elongated are


detriment al to high er workabili ty an d stability of es.
The flakiness index is defined as the percentage by mix

weigh t f aggregate particle s whos e least dimensio n is


o
less tha n 0.6 times the ir mean size. Test procedur e had
been standardize d in Ind ia (IS:238 6 p art - I)
SHAPE
TESTS
AGGREGATE
TESTS

The flakine ss inde x i s define d a s th e percentage


by weight of aggregate particles whose least
dimensio n i s less tha n 0.6 tim es their n size
Test procedur e ha d been standardize mead in .
(IS:2386 p art - I) The elongation index ofIndia an
aggregat e i s defined as e percentag e by weight
of es whose th st n (length ) is
1.8 timesgreate
particl dimension This test is
their mean dimensio
applicab le to aggregat es larg er tha. n 6.3 mm.
This test i s also specified in (IS:238 6 Part - I).
AGGREGATE
TESTS

Specific Gravity an d wat er absorption


The specific gravity and water absorption of
aggregates are important properties that are
required for the design of concrete and
bitumino us mix es.
AGGREGATE
TESTS
PAVEMENT
MATERIALS
Bitumen
Bituminous materials or asphalts are extensively used for
roadway construction, primarily because of their excellent
binding characteristics and water proofing properties and
relatively low cost. Bituminous materials consists of bitumen
whic h i s a blac k or k coloure d solid or us cementations
substance s dar visco
s chiefly hig h molecul ar t hydrocarbons
derived from distillation of petroleum or weigh
consist natural asphalt, has
adhesiv e properti es, an d i s soluble in carbo n disulphide. Tars are
residue s fro m th e destructiv e distillation of organi c substances
suc h a s , wood , r petroleu m an d are temperatur e sensitive
coaln en. o n will be d in petroleu m oils where
tha
unlik bitum
e ar . Bitume dissolve
t
PAVEMENT
MATERIALS
Production of Bitumen
bitumen is the residue or by-product when the crude
petroleum is refined. A wide variety of refinery
processes, such as the straight distillation process,
solvent extraction process etc. may be used to produce
bitumen of different consistency and other desirable
properties. Depending on the sources and
characteristics of the crude oils and on the properties of
bitumen required, more than one processing method
may be employed.
DIFFERENT FORMS OF
BITUMEN
Cutbac k

bitumen
Norm al practic e is to he at bitume n to reduc e its viscosity. In some
situation s preferenc e is given to use liqui d binder s such as cutback
bitume n In cutback bitumen suitable solvent is used to lower the
. y of e bitum en. From th e environmenta l poi t of w also
viscosit thbitumen is preferre d. The solvent fromn the vie bituminous
cutback will evaporate and the bitumen will bind the aggrega te.
material bitumen is used for cold weather bituminous road
Cutback
constructio n an d maintenanc e. e distillates used fo r preparatio n of
cutbac k bitume n Thar e naphtha , kerosene, el oil, d furnac e oil
dies
There ar e differe nt type s of k bitume n likan
e rapi d curin g .
mediu m curin g (MC) cutbac
, an d slow curin g (SC). RC is recommended(RC)
surfa ce dressin g d patchwo rk . ,
an for
CUTBACK
BITUMEN
PAVEMENT
MATERIALS
Bitumen Emulsion
Bitumen emulsion is a liquid product in which bitumen is
suspende d in a finely divided conditio n in an aqueo us medium
and stabilised by suitable mater ial. Normally cationic type
emulsions ear d in India. The bitume n conten t n the emulsion
is around 0% use d the remainin g is er.i n he emulsion is
applie d on th6e roa d i t brea ks dowwat
n resultinWhe t
g in releas e of
an d the mix anstart s to set. The time f o g depen waterds upo n the
grad eo f bitumen. e viscosity o f settin s emulsion s n be
measured as per Th I S: 888 7- 19 95 . bituminou ca
Three types of bituminous
emulsion s ar e available, which e Rapid settin g (RS , Medium
ar g (SC)
settin g (MS), d Slow settin )
an .
BITUMEN
EMULSION
PAVEMENT
MATERIALS
Bituminou s primers
In bituminou s prime r th e distillat e is absorbed
by th e roa d surfac e on whic h i t is spre ad. The
absorptio n therefor e depend s on the porosit y of
th e surface. n primer s ar e usefu l on the
stabilisedBitume
surfaces and water bound macadam
base cours es. Bituminou s primer s ar e generally
prepared on road sites by mixing penetration
bitume n wit h petroleu m distillate.
BITUMINOUS
PRIMERS
PAVEMENT
MATERIALS
Modified Bitumen
Certai n additive s or blen d of s called as
bitumen modifiers can improve additiveproperties of
Bitumen an d bitumino us mix es. Bitumen treated
with these modifiers is known as modified
bitum en . Polymer modified bitumen (PMB)
crum b rubber d bitumen (CR B) /
be used onlymodifie M should
in wearin g cours e dependin g upon
the requiremen t s of extreme c variatio ns.
climati
MODIFIED
BITUMEN
REQUIREMENTS OF
BITUMEN
The desirab le properti es of n depen d on th e mix type and
constructi on . In general, bitumeBitumen should posses following
desirab le properti es.
The bitumen should not be highly temperature susceptible:
durin g the hotte st weath er he mix should
n ot become too soft or t e, an d durin g cold weathe r th e mix
shoul d n ot become tunstabl
oo britt le causin g crack s
The viscosity of the bitumen at .the time of mixing and
compactio n shoul d be adequ ate. is ca n be achieve d by use of
cutbacks or emulsions of suitable Th grades or by heating the
bitume n an d aggregat es prior o mixi ng .
There should be adequate t affinity and adhesion between the
bitumen an d aggregat es used in the mix.
TESTS ON
BITUMEN
There are a numbe r of test s to assess th e properties f bituminou s materia ls. The
following ts are usually o

tes
conducte d to evaluate different propertie so f bitumino u s als.
1. Penetratio n test materi
2. Ductilit y test
3. Softening nt test
4. poi
Specific gravit y
5. Viscositytest
6. Flash andtest
Fire point test
7. Float test
8. Wat er content test
9. Loss n heati ng test
o
PENETRATION
TEST
I t measur es th e hardne ss r softnes s of n by measurin g th e dept h in
tenths of a millimetre oto which a standard bitume loaded needle will penetrate
vertically in 5 seconds. BI had standardised the equipment and test
procedu re. The penetrometeSr consists of a e assembly wit h a total weight
of 100g an d a device for g an dneedl
lockin g in any position. The bitume n is
softened to a pouring releasin
consistency, stirred thoroughly and poured into
container s t a dept h a t least 5 mm in exces s of he expect ed penetratio n. The
atest shoul d b e conducte d 1t a specified temperaturt e of 25 o C. I t may b e noted
th at penetratio an value i s largely influenced b y an y inaccura cy with regard s to
pourin g temperature , size o f he needl e, weight place d on the need le and the
t
test temperatu re.
A gra de of 0/5 0 bitume n mean s th e penetratio n valu e i s in th e rang e 4 0 to
4 r d st conditio ns.
5 0 at standa

tes, a lower penetratio n gra de i s preferr ed.


In h ot climate
PENETRATION
TEST
DUCTILITY
TEST
Ductilit y i s th e propert y of n tha t permits
bitume n or elongation
it to underg o grea t deformatio
Ductility is defined as the distance in cm, .
which a standard sample or briquette of the to
materi al willb e elongate d witho ut breaki ng.
The ductilit y valu e gets affected by factor s such
as pourin g temperatur e, test temperature, rat e of
pullin g etc. A minimu m ductilit y valu e of 5 cm
h as been specified by the BIS. 7
DUCTILITY
TEST
SOFTENING POINT
TEST
Softening point denote s th e temperatur e a t whic h the
bitume n attai ns a particula r degre e o f softenin g under
th e specification s f test. The test is conducted by using
o
Ring an d Ball apparat us. A bras s rin g containin g test
sampl e o f bitume n is d in liqui d like wat er or
glycerin e a t a givensuspende
temperatur e. A steel l is
upon the bitumen sample bal and the liquid medium placed is
heate d at a rat e of 5 o C per minu te. Temperatur e is
noted when the softened bitumen touches the metal
pla te whic h is t a specified distan ce below
a
SOFTENING POINT
TEST
SPECI C GRAVITY
FI TEST
In pavin g jobs, t o classify a binde r, densit y propert y i s of
u se. In most cases n i s weighe d, but great
whe n used witbitume
h aggregate s, th e bitume n i s converte d to volume
usin g densit y valu es. The densit y of n i s greatl y inuenced
by its chemica l on. Increasbitume
e in aromati c type mineral
compositi
impuritie s cau se an increa se in specific ty.
The specific gravit y of ngravi
i s define d a s e rati o of ss of
given volum e of bitume
n of nth conte nt to th e mass maof
volum e f watbitume
er at 7o C.know The specific gravit y ca n be equal
ousing either pycnometer
2 or preparing a cube specimen measuredof
bitumen in semi solid or solid state. The specific gravity of
bitume n vari es fro m 0.9 7 t o 1.0 2 .
VISCOSITY
TEST
Viscosity denotes he fluid proper ty of s materi al d i t i s a measure
of ce otflow. At he applicatio bituminou
n temperatur e, thi s an
characterist ic greatly
resistan
influenc est he strengt
t h of g pavin g mixes. w or h viscosity during
compactiot n o r resultin
mixing has n observed to resuLolt in lowe
hig r stability values.
bee
hig h viscosity, t resist e comp active effort an d thereb y resultin g mi Atx is
heterogeneou i s, hence th w stability valu es.
And a t low viscositlo y instea d of g a unifor m film over aggregates , it
providin
will lubrica te he aggrega te particl es.
Orifice typet viscometers ar e used to indirectly find th e viscosity of liquid
binde rs like ks an d emulsions.

cutbac
The viscosit y expresse d in seconds is th e tim e take n by th e 5 0 m l
materi al to pass through th e orifice of a p, unde r standar bitumen
d test
an d specified temperatu re. Viscosity ocu fa k ca n be dconditions
wit h either
4.0 mm orifice t 2 5o C or 0 mm orific cutbac
e t 2 5 or 40 o measure
C
a 1 a .
VISCOSITY
TEST
FLASH AND FIRE POINT
TEST
At high temperatures depending upon the grades of
bitumen materials leave out volatiles. And these
volatiles catches fire which is very hazardous and
therefor e i t is essential to qualify thi s temperatur e for
each bitume n gra de. BIS defined th e flash point a s the
temperature at which the vapour of bitumen
momentarily catches fir e . in the form of ash under
specified test conditions. The fir e point is d as
lowest temperature under specified tesdefine thes at
t condition
whic h the bitumino us materia l gets ignite d an d bur ns.
FLASH AND FIRE POINT
TEST
FLOAT
TEST
Normally the consistency of bituminous material can be
measure d eith er by n test or ty test.
But for certainpenetratio viscosi these tests are not
range of consistencies,
applicabl e an d Float test s us ed. The apparatu s consists of an
aluminium float and i a brass collar filled with bitumen to be
tested. The specimen in th e moul d is d to a temperatur e of
5 oC an d screwe d in to float. The totcoole
al test assembly i s floated in
the water bat h at 0 oC an d the time require d for wat er to pa ss its
way through 5 specimen plug is noted in seconds and is
expresse d as the
e float value .
th
FLOAT
TEST
WATER CONTENT
TEST
It is desirable that the bitumen contains minimum
wat er conte nt to preven t foamin g of e bitume n when
it is d above th e boilin g pointthof er. The water
heate
in a bitume n is determined by mixinwat g know n weigh t of
specimen i n a pur e petroleum distillate fr ee fro m water,
heatin g an d distilling of e wat er. The weigh t o f the
water condensed and th collected is expressed as
percentage by weight of the original sample. The
allowabl e maximu m wat er conte nt shoul d no t e more
tha n 0.2% by ht . b
weig
LOSS ON TES
HEATING T
Whe n th e bitume n is heate d i t loses th e volatility and
gets hardene d. t 50 m
g of th e sampl e is weighed
Aboud t o a temperatur e of 3 0 C for 5 hour s n a
an d heate
specified oven designed for16this test. The i sample
specimen i s weighe d agai n after the heatin g perio d and
loss in weigh t i s expresse d as percentag e by weigh t of
th e origina l le. Bitumen used in paveme nt mixes
shoulsamp
d no t indicat e mor e tha n 1% loss i n weight , but
for bitume n havin g penetratio n value s 1 50 - 20 0 u p to
2% loss in weigh t i s allowed.
TESTS OF
BITUMEN
REFERENCES
Text Book
Khanna S.K. and C.E.G. Justo (2000), Highway
Engineering, Nem Chand & Bros., Roorkee
http://www.nhai.org/

http://irc.org.in/ENU/Pages/IRC.aspx
THANK
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