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o Qualitative research o Quantitative research

.COMBINING QUALITATIVE & QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH FINDINGS Qualitative research findings to discover new ideas & to develop promotional strategy. The combined findings enable marketers to design more meaningful and effective marketing strategies. Quantitative research findings to predict consumer reactions to various promotional inputs.

Types of question & data collection methods :- Sampling methods :. nonprobablity samples.Small. Large. Data analysis :it is subjective because it reflects the researchers¶ judgments. probability samples.COMPARISONS BETWEEN QUALITATIVE & QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE Study purpose :- Its about new product ideas & positioning strategies. It is objective because analyzes the data by using Standardized statistical methods. Closed-ended questions. . Open ended & unstructured questions. Making strategic marketing decisions.

The consumer research process 1. Analyzing the data 6. Preparing a report on the findings . Developing research objectives 2. Designing a primary research study 4. Collecting primary data 5. Collecting and evaluating secondary data 3.

1. Developing research objectives .

2. Collecting and evaluating secondary data .

DESIGNING PRIMARY RESEARCH Based on purpose of study Descriptive Information Quantitative research For new ideas Qualitative research .

± electronic eye camera ± monitors eye movements of .Quantitative Research Designs 1) Observation In depth understanding of relationship between people and products a) Mechanical Observation Use of mechanical or electronic device to record customer behaviour or response to a particular marketing stimulus Increasing use of automated systems in purchase ± easy + rewards b) Physiological Observation Device that monitor respondents¶ patterns of information processing Eg.

independent variables are manipulated in a controlled setting in order to predict sales or guage the possible responses to the product .2) Experimentation a) Causal Research Independent variables ± manipulated b) Controlled Experiment ± difference in the outcome is due to different treatments of the variable under study and not to extraneous factors c) Test Marketing ± prior to launching a new product.

3) Surveys a) Personal Interview Surveys i) Home ii) Mall intercepts b) Telephone Surveys i) Hostile respondents ± Interruption ii) Less willingness of respondents c) Mail Surveys i) Questionnaires directly to homes ii) Low response rate d) Online Surveys i) Internet ii) Sample¶s respondents ± self selected .

important . easy to complete. personal interview or telephone ‡Interesting.Quantitative research data collection instruments Data collection instruments pretested to assure validity & reliability 1) Questionnaires ‡By mail. objective. not burdensome ‡Include both substantive questions and demographic questions ‡Include both open-ended & close-ended questions ‡Wording the questions biggest challenge ‡Sequence of questions . unambiguous.

simple to answer ‡Consists of equal number of agreement/disagreement choices on either side of a neutral choice Eg. Neither agree nor disagree 4. Strongly agree 2. Somewhat disagree 5.2) Attitude scales List of product or product attributes indicate the relative feelings or evaluations a) Likert Scale ‡Easy to prepare & interpret. Somewhat agree 3. Strongly disagree . I am afraid to give my credit card number online 1.

like/dislike. ‡Respondents are asked to evaluate a concept by checking the point on continuum that best reflects their feelings or beleifs Eg.Please express one alternative that best express your opinion on online banking Reliable Unreliable .b) Semantic differential Scale ‡Relatively easy to construct and administer ‡Consists of a series of bipolar adjectives such as good/bad. 5 or 7 point) continuum. at the ends of an odd numbered (eg.

Not at all . Yes. such as buying the product again etc. Will you recommend others to buy from our store? 1. definetely 2. May be 3.c) Behaviour Intention Scale ‡Likelihood that consumers will act in a certain way in the future. ‡Easy to construct ‡Consumers are asked to make subjective judgment regarding their future behaviour Eg.

and continuing until you have ranked all of the methods. Inside the bank ATM Online banking Banking by mail Banking by telephone . a 2 next to your second preference. Please rank the following banking methods by placing a 1 in front of the method you prefer most.d) Rank-order Scale ‡Subjects are asked to rank items such as products in order of preferences in terms of some criterion ‡Provides competitive information and enable marketers to identify needed areas of improvement in product design and product positioning Eg. We would like to find out about your preferences regarding banking methods.

.Qualitative Research Design & Data Collection Methods 1) Depth Interview ‡Lengthy. ‡Transcripts. who minimizes his or her own participation in the discussion after establishing the general subject to be discussed. together with report of respondent s moods & gestures or body language they may have used to convey attitudes or motives. non-structured interview between respondent and highly trained interviewer. or audiotape recordings of interviews are carefully studied. videotapes.

2) Focus Groups ‡Consists of 8 to 10 respondents who meet with a moderate analyst for a group discussion focused on particular product or product category. ‡Are taped. ‡Usually held in specially designed conference rooms with one-way mirrors ‡Limitation socially acceptable response . & sometimes videotaped to assist in analysis.

services & marketing strategies. Such as incomplete sentences. word-association tests. . ‡Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) relies on visual images to assess consumer s deep & subconscious thoughts about products. ‡Consists of variety of disguised tests that contain ambiguous stimuli. & other-person characterization.3) Projective Techniques ‡Designed to tap the underlying motives of individuals despite their unconscious rationalizations or efforts at conscious concealment. ink blots. untitled pictures or cartoons. 4) Metaphor Analysis ‡Use of one form of expression to describe or represent feelings about another is called a metaphor.

how satisfied the customers are with relevant attributes of the product or service 2) Mystery Shoppers observers who pose as customers 3) Complaint Analysis ‡Complaint about unsatisfactory product or service ‡Provide suggestions for improvement ‡Establish listening posts .Customer Satisfaction measurement 1) Customer Satisfaction Surveys .

Sampling & Data Collection Sample subset of population used to estimate characteristics of entire population 1) Probability Sampling ‡Simple random sample ‡Systematic random sample ‡Stratified random sample ‡Cluster sample 2) Non Probability Sample ‡Convenience sample ‡Judgment sample ‡Quota Sample .

Sampling and Data collection Sampling plan Sampling unit Sample size Sampling procedure SampleProbability sample Non-probability sample .

Data analysis and reporting research findings Qualitative research Quantitative research .

Ethics in consumer research ‡ Must be ensure that studies are objective and free of bias. ‡ At start of all surveys. . interviewers must clearly identify themselves and company for which they are working.

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