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MEASURING

BRAND
A S S O C I AT I O N

G R O U P 6 A

D I V YA N S H U S H A R M A | S O U M I T R A PA N D E Y | V I B H O R B H A R G AV A
Introduction Origin Techniques Dimensions ZMET BCM

Brand Association
Why Measure it?
Keller (1998) defines brand associations as informational nodes linked to the brand node in memory that
contain the meaning of the brand for consumers.
Crudely defined they are not the benefits, but the images and symbols associated with a brand or a brand
benefit

Why Measure Brand Association?


Brand associations are important to marketers and to consumers

Marketers use brand associations to differentiate, position, and extend brands, to create
positive attitudes and feelings toward brands, and to suggest attributes or benefits of purchasing or using a
specific brand

Consumers use brand associations to help process, organize, and retrieve information in
memory and to aid them in making purchase decisions
Introduction Origin Techniques Dimensions ZMET BCM

Forming Brand Association


SCHEMES QUALITY
NAME

Brands, whose name signifies Brands, which have something


Brands which are known for their
something special quality
more to offer

ADVERTISEMENTS PRICE CELEBRITY ASSOCIATION

Brands which, were consciously made Brands which are exceptionally Brands which are associated
to be associated like that expensive or cheap with a celebrity
Introduction Origin Techniques Dimensions ZMET BCM

Measuring Brand Association


Ways to do it

Aaker (1991) defines brand associations as anything linked in memory to a brand

Three related constructs that are, by definition, linked in memory to a brand, and which have
been researched conceptually and measured empirically are

1. 2. 3.
Brand Image Brand Perceived
Attitude Quality
Introduction Origin Techniques Dimensions ZMET BCM

Measuring Brand Association


Ways to do it
Brand Image

Brand image is defined as the reasoned or emotional perceptions consumers attach to specific brands (Dobni and
Zinkhan,1990) and is the first consumer brand perception that was identified in the marketing literature (Gardner and Levy,
1955). Brand image consists of functional and symbolic brand beliefs

The metrics to further measure brand image would vary by product category, eg. For a hand held calculator, the metrics
would be: Portability, reliability, usefulness, range of features, etc.

Brand Attitude

Brand attitude is defined as consumers' overall evaluation of a brand - whether good or bad. Unlike brand image,
attitude can very simply be measured in the same manner across categories

Perceived Quality
Perceived quality is defined as the consumer's judgment about a product's overall excellence or superiority. Perceived quality
explains a considerable portion of the variance in the price premium consumers are willing to pay for national brands.
Introduction Origin Techniques Dimensions ZMET BCM

Measuring Brand Association


Brand Personality
Brand personality is a
set of human
characteristics that are
attributed to a brand
name. A brand
personality is something
to which the consumer
can relate; an effective
brand increases its
brand equity by having a
consistent set of traits
that a specific consumer
segment enjoys
Introduction Origin Techniques Dimensions ZMET BCM

Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique

A lot goes on in our minds that were not aware of. Most of
what influences what we say and do occurs below the level
of awareness. Thats why we need new techniques to get
at hidden knowledge; to get at what people dont know they

know.
- Zaltman
Introduction Origin Techniques Dimensions ZMET BCM

ZMET A Brief
The beginning:
Zaltsman, 1990 experimentation in Nepal

Disposable cameras given to villagers

Asked to portray their village in pictures for an outsider

Pictures = Metaphors

Discussion on pictures being generic, apart from one observation

No feet captured in any picture sign of poverty


Introduction Origin Techniques Dimensions ZMET BCM

ZMET A Brief
People think in images but most research Human Thoughts
tools are verbocentric
Metaphors simulate the workings of human
mind
Conscious Unconscious
Uncovers the hidden thoughts/feelings
Introduction Origin Techniques Dimensions ZMET BCM

BCM Brand Concept Maps

Explains the first and higher order brand associations, while overcoming the limitations of ZMTE (Zaltman
Metaphor Elicitation Technique) and Network Analysis

Directly Linked and


Important Brand
Indirectly Linked
Associations
Associations

What does it
measure?

Building Stronger Effect on Other


Associations and Inter- Associations, if one is
connections changed
Introduction Origin Techniques Dimensions ZMET BCM
Introduction Origin Techniques Dimensions ZMET BCM

BCM Brand Concept Maps

Steps in creating BCM

Elicitation
Eliciting responses from consumers about the brand association
Retained only if stated by at least half of the respondents (core associations)
Mapping
Consumers use a set of brand associations to make network map of how they see the brand
Inter-connections are formed by consumers
The strength of association is decided as weak, medium or strong
Associations physically or mentally closest to the brand are called first-order and rest as second or third order
Finally consumer rates the brand as favourable or unfavourable on the scale of 10
Aggregation
Consensus map is created
Two measures used for consensus map
Frequency of mention of each association
Number of interconnections found between associations
Introduction Origin Techniques Dimensions ZMET BCM

BCM Example: GAP Inc.

Associations mapping for High Involvement Associations mapping for Low Involvement
group group

Reference Application of Brand Concept Map to GAP Inc, by Sungha Shin


Introduction Origin Techniques Dimensions ZMET BCM

BCM Example: GAP Inc.

Identified common associations

All ages
Casual
American style
Denim/jeans
Reasonable
Classic
Middle price
Simple
Basic
Comfortable
Practical

Reference Application of Brand Concept Map to GAP Inc, by Sungha Shin