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The basic units of the nervous

system and its organization

The basic unit of the nervous system is the
neuron, or nerve cell. Neurons are distinguished
from other cells by their ability to communicate with
other neurons through synaptic transmission and
form highly structured communication networks.
Neurons are electrically excitable cells that receive,
process and transmit information using electrical
and chemical signals.
Neurons are also different from other cells by virtue of their
being highly polarized with uniquely specialized and distinct
morphological regions. The dendrites are the regions where
signals from other neurons are received.

Neurons are the primary components of the nervous

system, which includes the spinal cord, brain and the
central and peripheral nervous systems. Highly specialized
types of neurons perform unique functions.

Sensory neurons are those that respond to touch, light and

sound. Motor neurons activate muscles and glands after
receiving signals from the spinal cord and brain. The
interneurons connect neurons to each other and form
regional neural networks within shared areas of the spinal
cord or brain.
Neurons (specialized cells of the nervous system) send signals along thin
fibers called axons and communicate with other cells by releasing
chemicals called neurotransmitters at cell-cell junctions called synapses.
Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition in the
nervous system.
In humans, the nervous system consists of the central and peripheral
nervous systems.
The central nervous system of humans contains the brain, spinal cord,
and retina.
The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons, clusters of
neurons called ganglia, and nerves connecting them to each other and to
the central nervous system.
The Influenced of Heredity
Every individual on this earth is different from
the other. No one person is fully like other person.
Every person differs from the other, either
physically or psychologically. Even the twins are no
exception to this. They differ in some aspects or other.
Particularly when we look at people from psychological
point of view these differences are quite obvious. In
many instances even the children differ from their

What makes these differences to exist? What are

the causes? The answer to these queries can
be Heredity.
Heredity- Heredity refers to the genetic inheritance received by every
individual at the time of conception. The origin of every human life can be traced to a
single cell called zygote. It is formed by the union of sperm and ovum.

Hereditary Influences
Evidence for hereditary influences on intelligence comes from the following
Family studies show that intelligence tends to run in families.
Twin studies show a higher correlation between identical twins in IQ than
between fraternal twins. This holds true even when identical twins reared
apart are compared to fraternal twins reared together.
Adoption studies show that adopted children somewhat resemble their
biological parents in intelligence.
It is often difficult to separate the relative influences of heredity and
environment on human characteristics. People who have similar genetic
makeup (e.g., brothers and sisters, parents and their children) typically live in
similar environments as well. So when we see similarities in IQ among
members of the same family, it is hard to know whether those similarities are
due to the genes or to the environments that family members share.
Nevertheless, a significant body of research tells us that both heredity and
environment affect intelligence.
Heredity influences
Genetic makeup that affects ones qualities
Many researchers say heredity sets the upper and lower limit on the IQ
of a person.
Environment influences
Physical and behavioral experiences that affect ones qualities
Many researchers say environment determines the IQ within the range
History of discrimination created minorities different social
classes affect on cognitive development
For those in lower social classes will have relatively deprived learning
resources, parental assistance, role models, privacy for study, etc.
Cultural and ethic differences
The Six Classes of Energy
The Six Classes of Energy
The Six Classes of Energy
5 Major Senses
Sight -The sense of sight helps us recognize each
other and learn about color, motion and distance.
Hearing -The sense of hearing helps us learn
from each other through communication. Sound
can produce patterns.
Touch- The sense of touch helps us learn about
our world by feeling it and learning the size,
texture and shape of things.
Smell- The sense of smell helps us enjoy life and
helps us learn about unsafe conditions.
Taste- Taste helps us, among other things, to
select and enjoy food. There are four familiar
General Properties of the Senses
(Quality, Intensity, Duration)

The most prominent feature by which sensations of the same or

different senses are distinguished from each other, is that of quality. The
sensations of sound are thus of a generically different quality from those
of smell, while the feeling of blue is of a specifically distinct quality from
that of red. These states may also vary in tone, or pleasurableness and

Besides differing in quality, sensations may also vary in intensity,

and duration. By the intensity of a sensation is understood its vividness,
its greater or less strength in consciousness. The degree of intensity
depends partly on the force of the objective stimulus, and partly on the
vigour of attention. The duration of a sensation means obviously the
length of time during which it persists in existence.
Meaning and Principles of
Perception- can be defined as our recognition and
interpretation of sensory information. Perception also
includes how we respond to the information. We can
think of perception as a process where we take in
sensory information from our environment and use that
information in order to interact with our environment.
Perception allows us to take the sensory information in
and make it into something meaningful.
Gestalt Principles
The German word Gestalt roughly translates to whole or form,
and the Gestalt psychologists sincerely believed that the whole is greater than
the sum of its parts. In order to interpret what we receive through our senses,
they theorized that we attempt to organize this information into certain
groups. This allows us to interpret the information completely without
unneeded repetition. For example, when you see one dot, you perceive it as
such, but when you see five dots together, you group them together by saying a
row of dots. Without this tendency to group our perceptions, that same row
would be seen as dot, dot, dot, dot, dot, taking both longer to process and
reducing our perceptive ability. The Gestalt principles of grouping include four
types: similarity, proximity, continuity, and closure.
Extrasensory perception, or ESP refers to a number of perceptions gained
through the mind, rather than through the traditional five recognized senses. There are
several types of ESP known to exist, though we will cover the most widely recognized
along with a few secondary types of ESP.

Forms of Extra Sensory Perception

o Precognition
Precognition refers to the ability to see the future. Though the scientific
community generally rejects precognition because of the lack of
demonstration, many scientific explanations are available to explain it.
Experiments conducted by the Parapsychology Laboratory at Duke University
show the human mind has a habit along with the ability to subconsciously
predict an outcome of events by judging current circumstances. Such
predictions, if they later become true, are then related to precognition.
Nostradamus is one of the most famous people known for his predictions, as
he has reportedly predicted several events throughout history that occurred
long after his death.
o Retrocognition
Retrocognition refers to the ability to see in the distant past. It can be as
simple as recognizing a place, or a person, or somehow knowing what
happened in a certain situation one had nothing to do with at the time it took
place. When someone experiences dj vu, it could be a simple instance of
retrocognition. Someone who has retrocognition abilities could possibly to you
in the present about what it was like to be a passenger on the Titanic when it
sank in 1912.

o Telepathy
Telepathy refers to the ability to read and other persons thoughts. Telepathy
allows a person to communicate with one or more people using their mind
and no other sensory input. If youve ever become so close to someone you
can tell what theyre thinking, you may not be a telepath, but you can
understand the idea behind this particular type of ESP.
o Clairvoyance
Clairvoyance refers to the ability to see objects or events that are
happening to someone else. Similar to telepathy, clairvoyance refers to the
ability to gain knowledge about a person, event, or thing without sensory
input. Though typically thought to be strongest during meditation, many
psychics can get information about the past, present, and future in a
variety of environments.

o Clairaudience
Clairaudience refers the ability to hear objects or events that are
happening to someone else, without any other additional sensory
information. Like clairvoyance, clairaudience is thought to be strongest
during meditation, however many clairaudience can obtain information in
a variety of environments.
o Mediumship
Mediumship refers to the ability to communicate with the dead by channeling
their spirits. Most mediums use a variety of types of ESP, including clairvoyance
and clairaudience to obtain their information.
o Clairalience
A secondary form of ESP, clairalience refers to the ability to smell. While all
humans have the ability to smell, this type of ESP refers to aromas that are not
detected by everyone else. It is thought that these aromas are projected by
o Clairgustance
Another secondary form of ESP, clairgustance refers to the ability to taste. While
all humans have the ability to taste, this type of ESP refers to the ability to taste
without putting anything in the mouth. It is thought that those who have this
ability can perceive the essence of a particular substance from the spiritual
realms through taste.