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GROUP ASSIGNMENT ON

Proportional Election as a Way to Stabilize Democracy in


Bangladesh

COURSE NAME: GOVERNANCE AND GLOBALIZATION


COURSE CODE:PA2418
2nd YEAR , 4th SEMESTER
SESSION:2015-16
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
BANGLADESH UNIVERSITY OF PROFESSIONALS
SUBMITTED BY
GROUP-4

NAME ID

AKLIMA AKTAR SWEETY 16161004

ARIF RAIHAN SHAKIL 16161007

AZMAINE FAEIQUE 16161009

HELALI IQBAL 16161013

SANJEEDA SHAHEED PREETY 16161035


Introduction

Proportional Representation (PR) is an electoral system in which parties


gain seats in direct proportion to the number of votes they receive.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by
which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected
body. If n% of the electorate support a particular political party, then
roughly n% of seats will be won by that party.
CONT.

Bangladesh currently follows what is often called the Majority


System (MS) of election. It is sometimes also known as the Winner
Takes All sys-tem or the First Pass system. Such a system leads to
volatile and often unfair outcomes of election and thus works against
stability and accommodation of each other by competing political
parties. PE, by contrast, allows all parties to get a share in the outcome
in accordance to the percentage of votes they receive. PE thus produces
stable and fair outcomes and hence can promote accommodation and
peace.
Proportional Election: The International
Perspective

There are many variations in the way democracy is practiced across the world
and even in developed capitalist countries. One of these variations concerns
the system of representation (or election). Looking across the democracies,
it is possible to observe a wide range of systems of election of representative
bodies. These may be classified broadly into two types: the Majority System
(MS) and the Proportional Election (PE). As noted above, under MS, the
candidate winning the majority of votes gets the entire constituency, leaving
nothing for the other candidates. Under PE, the seats are allocated among
parties in proportion to votes they receive.
CONT.

Wide Prevalence of Proportional Election across the World


First, countries following the PE system outnumber those following
MS, particularly among developed countries.
Second, most of the New Democraciesformer socialist
countries of East Europe and republics of the USSRhave opted for
PE.
Third, many developing countries use the PE system.
Fourth, there is a move toward the PE system even by countries
that have
been practicing MS so far.
CONT.

Variations in Proportional Election


The first concerns whether the system is based on Closed List or
Open List.
The second dimension of variation concerns the level at which PE
is applied.
A third dimension of variation concerns whether proportional
representa-tion is supplemented by MS, so that what emerges is a
combination of both (i.e., a hybrid).
A fourth dimension of the variation of the PE system concerns
whether the representation is implemented in the form of single
transferable vote (STV) or single nontransferable vote (SNTV) and
cumulative voting.
Potential Merits of Proportional Election for
Bangladesh

prevents Large Impact of Small Changes in Vote Shares


Reduces the Objective Scope and Subjective Incentives for
Manipulation and Abuse
Promotes Better Quality Candidates
Improves the Quality of Election Campaign
Eliminates the Necessity of Pre-election Alliances
CONT.

Strengthens the Political Parties

Creates Better Conditions for Functioning of Local


Governments

Creates Level Playing Field and Is More Inclusive

Being More Just and Conducive to Peace


Potential Problems of Proportional Election in
Bangladesh

Issue of Geographical Representation


Issue of Frequent Changes in the Government
Piggy-backing and Nomination Trade
CONCLUSION

Switch to the Proportional Election (PE) from the current Majority System (MS) is an
important political reform idea arising from the institutional approach. It has
considerable potential to improve Bangladesh politics. The switch from MS to PE will
require consent of the major political par-ties. It is encouraging that many perceptive
leaders of both Awami League and BNP have expressed their sympathies for PEMany
prominent intellectuals and observers of Bangladesh politics have also voiced support
for PE. Thus there is already significant expressed support for PE in Bangladesh. It is
quite possible that, with further advocacy and campaign, more people will come out
in favor of PE, and it will indeed get adopted in Bangladesh.
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