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In the term aerodynamics, aero stands for air, dynamic
denotes motion Aerodynamics is an engineering science
concerned with interaction between bodies and
Aircraft aerodynamics: it explains the behavior aero
plane in an atmosphere and the way it has to be
designed to achieve ideal flying of it in air.
Rotary aerodynamics: it encompasses a very large part
of aerodynamics. It includes rotors for helicopter,
aeronautic and marine propellers.
Rotor craft aerodynamics: it is that branch of
aerodynamics concerned with helicopter propulsion
Flight involves a balance of four forces
.These four forces THRUST, DRAG, LIFT
and WEIGHT as shown in the figure.
An aircraft in straight and level flight is similar to a
Childs teeter-totter. There is a balance point in
the middle (called a fulcrum), with weight on both
sides of the fulcrum.
For the teeter-totter to be in balance, the
downward forces on both sides of the fulcrum must
be equal.
Every aircraft has a maximum forward and
rearward CG position at which the aircraft is
designed to operate. Operating an aircraft with
the CG outside these limits affects the handling
characteristics of the aircraft. Serious "out of
CG" conditions can be dangerous.
There is also a drag component
operating parallel to the relative wind in
opposition to the forward motion of the
wind drag is created as natural part of
producing lift. These two forces intersect
at a point call the center of lift, or is also
o called the center of pressure. The lift
and drag force vectors can be resolved
into a single force vector called the
resultant force. Envision if the angle
attack is increased. The vertical lift
decreases in value, and the horizontal
force of drag increases. Therefore, when
a pilot wants to slow the aircraft, the
nose of the aircraft must be slowly
raised into a greater nose up attitude,
causing drag to increase, thus lowering
the aircraft.
In order to turn the aircraft, it must be
placed into a bank state where one
wing is high; the other low in order to
bank the aircraft, the pilot must turn
the control wheel to the left. The right
aileron lowers; this increases the
angle of attack of that part of the right
wing, causing right wing to rise. At the
same time, the left aileron raises. The
angle of attack of that part of the left
ring decreases, causing the left wing
to lower. This increased lift of the right
and decreased lift of the left wing
causes the aircraft to role to the left,
This tendency to turn
in a direction opposite
to the intended turn
direction is called
adverse yaw.
The sum of the two drags (total
drag curve) shows that there is
only one air speed for a given
airplane and load that provides
minimum total drag. This is the
point M, which is the maximum
lift over drag ratio (L/D). It is
the airspeed at which the
aircraft can glide the farthest
without power (maximum glide
range). This is the airspeed,
which should immediately be
set up in the event of a power
The load factor is the
total load supported
by the wings divided
by the total weight of
the airplane. In
straight and level
flight, the load factor
is 1
What dis- symmetry of By allowing the blades to
lift means is, when the flap on hinges (articulated
rotor system is rotor system). Another
experiencing the same way is to have the whole
conditions all around the hub swing up and down
perimeter of rotors are, all around an internal
things are equal, and the bearing called a trunion
system is in balance. we can overcome
Once the system dissymmetry of lift to
experiences a differential some extent.
in wind speed from any
angle, it becomes
unbalanced, and begins
to rotate.
TRANSLATING TENDENCY- The tendency for a
single rotor helicopter to drift laterally, due to tail
rotor thrust.
SETTLING WITH POWER- Settling with power
is basically when the helicopter settles into the
rotor wash produced by its own rotor system.
DYNAMIC ROLLOVER- What actually happens
is that the helicopter, which is still on the ground,
will start to roll over on its side using one skid, or
wheel, as the pivot point.
These things are
unique to helicopters
FLIGHT:Nap of the
earth flight (NOE)is a
mode of flight in
which the pilot keep
the aircraft very close
to the ground,
following the contours
of hills, streams,
canyons, and all other
land features
On front of most U.S Army and many civil helicopters
you may notice a knife like fixture on the top of the
cockpit, and one on the bottom of the aircraft near the
chin bubbles. It was developed because of the increased
risk of wire strikes while flying at NOE altitudes. If a
helicopter hits a power line (telephone line, electrical
line, guy wire for a tower or any other wire obstacle), the
rotor system may become entangled with the wire, and
catastrophic failure of the rotor system could lead to total
destruction of the aircraft.
Most people think that a helicopter will fall
like a rock and the rotor system will stop
once the engine fails. This is a totally false
assumption. A helicopter can continue to
fly without any power from the engine.
Autorotation is the term used for Gliding
a helicopter down after the engine fails of
the throttle is retarded to the idle position.
The general applications of The aerospace applications
aerodynamics are of aerodynamics are
Air craft aerodynamics Military aircrafts
Race cars and motorcycles Business jet
Automotive aerodynamics Rotorcraft in hover
Truck aerodynamics Inlet aerodynamics
Sports aerodynamics
Turbo boost (gas and diesel)
Jet engine noise reduction
The ability to control general three dimensional
unsteady flows could open new possibilities in
the performance of many aerodynamics
systems, including aircraft, helicopter and wind
energy conversion systems.
The ability to control general three dimensional
unsteady flows could open new possibilities in
the performance of many aerodynamics
systems, including aircraft, helicopter and wind
energy conversion systems.
Anderson, Jr., J.D. "Introduction to Flight",
McGraw-Hill International Editions, 3rd edition
Hill. P. And Peterson, Mechanics and
Thermodynamics of Propulsion", Addison-
Wesley Publishing Company, 2nd edition.