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Elements of Job Analysis:

Work Activity (WA).

Knowledge, Skill and Abilities (KSA).

Data on Range of Job Performance.

Characteristics of Workplace.

Philosophy of Job Analysis
(Elements of Job Analysis)

Writing down statement of job

Manifestation Listing tasks to be performed
Listing down responsibilities
Work Activity

Knowledge, Skill and Abilities

Bases of Job
Personal Characteristics
Performance levels and
workplace characteristics

Philosophy of Job Analysis

Classification of job and pay

Recruitment and selection

Training and development

Expected Performance appraisals

Organizational growth in due
Elements of Job Analysis
course of time and promotions

HR and workface planning

Contractual and legal needs

Scenario for Students Understanding
Each one of you is member of a business firm which is
engaged in productive activities of goods or services.
You are Deputy Director HR; your firm is in expanding
mode in view of market requirements; hence new slots
of employment have emerged which includes Manager
Security, Manager Customer Services, Market Surveyor,
Product Designer and Manager Sales Promotion.
Your CEO asked you to draft job analysis check list
covering its elements for attaining competitive edge in
the market. You are required to explain your view point
through a short presentation. 4
Elements of Job Analysis
Work Activity:
Process of job analysis typically begins with a
description of major job functions, activities in which a
job incumbent regularly engages, reasons why job
Problem is with smallest unit into which work can be
divided without analyzing separate motions, movement,
and mental processes (Cascio, 1987, p. 185.)

Elements of Job Analysis
Work Activity:
According to Fine and Cronshaw, a more useful
approach in explaining work activity is that of
Functional Job Analysis, which specifies:
An action verb, which describes action performed in
observable terms.
Outcomes or results of that action.
Tools or other equipment used.
Amount of discretion allowed.

Elements of Job Analysis
Work Activity:
The assembler takes one end of red wire and one end
of green wire and joins them together with a screw

The surgeon takes the scalpel and makes a long
incision into the chest of the comatose patient.

Elements of Job Analysis
KSA (Knowledge, Skill and Ability):
is organized body of information, usually of a factual or
procedural nature, that, when applied, makes the
successful performance of a job action possible.
Knowledge is usually not demonstrated in the action
itself but rather by prior education, training, or testing.
In observing the action, the knowledge base is
assumed and inferred rather than directly observed.

Elements of Job Analysis
KSA (Knowledge, Skill and Ability):
Skill, the second necessary component for the
successful execution of the job action, is defined as the
proficiency in the manual, verbal, or mental
manipulation of people, ideas, or things.
A skill is always directly observable and a certain level
of skill is typically set as a standard or baseline for the
successful performance of the action.

Elements of Job Analysis
KSA (Knowledge, Skill and Ability):
Ability is defined as the present capacity to execute a
job action, to perform a job function by applying an
underlying knowledge base and the necessary skills
Knowledge, like ability, is not observable directly but
rather is an inferred, higher-order construct, such as
problem solving etcetera.
Ability is observable and displayable.

Elements of Job Analysis
KSAO (Personal / Interpersonal Psychological Requirements):
Big Five or Five Factors:
Neuroticism: is fundamental personality trait in study
of psychology characterized by anxiety, fear,
moodiness, worry, envy, frustration and jealousy.
Extroversion: act of directing one's interest outward or
to things outside the self.
Openness to New Experience: Learning new things
Agreeableness: willing to agree.
Consciousness: state of awareness.

Elements of Job Analysis
Levels of Job Performance:
After developing clarity of WA involved in a job and the
necessary competencies, a job analysis must identify
necessary range of adequate job performance.
Most job analyses focus on identifying what constitutes
a high level of job performance in order to identify the
competencies that separate stars from the rest of the
pack. It pertains to a case of trained individual and new
incumbent who is to take a start in the new set-up.

Elements of Job Analysis
Levels of Job Performance:
When we examine job performance of incumbents, we
typically learn what an experienced job holder can
In establishing job performance requirements, we must
set more modest initial levels for new hires.
One additional point, in selecting supervisors and
managers from an existing workforce, it is often the
case that a top performer is chosen without
recognizing that supervisory and managerial tasks
require different skills than performing the tasks being 13
Elements of Job Analysis
Workplace Characteristics:
Workplaces vary enormously in their norms, climate,
and culture, in the level of discomfort that workers can
experience, the inherent risks posed by working there,
and other noteworthy factors.
A competent and thorough job analysis identifies
important workplace characteristics.
Many approaches to job analyses pay scant attention to
describing the workplace setting unless it varies
significantly from the typical factory, office etcetera.

Elements of Job Analysis
Class Activity:
Write 5 short statements of work activities of your
respective job slots and prepare yourself for its
Study workplace characteristics profile and have a look
at its rating on your chosen appointment.
Group based activity: Demonstration of Group
Discussion and presentations.

I wish you all the best for pleasure learning.
Readings for the next week:

Methods of job analysis.

Caveats and cautions.

Quiz-2 in 6th week, in shaa Allah.