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Tuberculosis

Montierro, Jessica M.
HCS-II
Definition
Tuberculosis- is a chronic bacterial infection characterized by granuloma
formation, necrosis, and calcification of involved tissues.

- Fairly common among low-income, congested families;

- is a potentially fatal contagious disease that can affect almost any part of
the body but is mainly an infection of the lungs.
Causative Agent

- Mycobacterium tuberculosis
- Acid-fast bacilli, aerobic
Incubation Period
- 3-8 Weeks

- The incubation period may vary from about two to 12 weeks. A person may remain
contagious for a long time (as long as viable TB bacteria are present in sputum) and
can remain contagious until they have been on appropriate therapy for several weeks.
Mode of Transmission
- Nasopharyngeal secretions

- Drinking of infected cows milk

- Droplet nuclei infection


Signs and Symptoms
Coughing that lasts three or more weeks

Coughing up blood

Chest pain, or pain with breathing or coughing

Unintentional weight loss

Fatigue

Fever

Night sweats

Chills

Loss of appetite
Pathognomonic sign
Tuberculosis is a disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality
worldwide. Many cases of tuberculosis caused by cross-contamination and
contaminated with the bacterium that causes the disease through poor health
habits and hygiene. Tuberculosis affects many people that men are more
likely to develop this disease. Today, the boundaries between men and
women are affected with the same TB gradually exit.
Tuberculosis is caused by a group of bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This particular bacteria
infect many parts of the body such as the kidney, spine, brains and other organs. In tuberculosis various
organs, attacks signs and symptoms vary, but the same threat and death to people affected poses.
Tuberculosis discovered and invented by famous German physician Robert Koch. It is also the same
person that the bacteria that cause anthrax and cholera isolated. pathognomonic sign of tuberculosis A
good thing TB is that as the years passed, the lifetime of the quality of life of people suffering from
tuberculosis has been reduced because of the different drugs that have been developed to combat the
disease. Caused by this disease
Diagnostic Examinations
- Chest X-ray

- Sputum AFB- 3 consecutive mornings; to identify if the client is


communicable

- Bronchoscopy

- Mantoux test-or PPD; exposure to TB

- TB culture-confirmatory;
Medical Management
-Rifampicin (RIF)- taken WITH food to prevent GI upset; - causes hepatotoxicity (reddish-orange
urine)

-Isoniazid (INH)- taken on EMPTY stomach for maximum absorption;

Cause PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY;

Given with PYRIDOXINE

-Ethambutol (EMB) - causes OPTIC NEURITIS characterized by blurring of vision;

Not given in children less than 6 years old;


Pyrazinamide (PZA)- causes hepatotoxicity and hyperuricemia

Protect drug from light

Streptomycin(IM)- must weigh px daily and monitor kidney function;

Causes OTOTOXICITY and NEPHROTOXICITY


Nursing Management
The nurse performs a complete history and physical examination.

Clinical manifestations of fever, anorexia, weight loss, night sweats, fatigue,


cough, and sputum production prompt a more thorough assessment of
respiratory functionfor example, assessing the lungs for consolidation by
evaluating breath sounds (diminished, bronchial sounds, crackles), fremitus,
egophony, and dullness on percussion.

Enlarged, painful lymph nodes may be palpated as well. The nurse also
assesses the patients living arrangements, perceptions and understanding
of TB and its treatment, and readiness to learn.