COMMUNICATION DELAYS

ANNE BONIDAN MARK HOOPER LESLIE GORDON KRISTIN BALL

Did You Know?
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Definitions
y Speech is a skill that children begin to develop with the first sounds they make as babies.

For most children, their first words are made up of simple sounds such as Mama, Dada or bye-bye. Gradually children begin to use their speech skills, or sounds, to form language.
y Language refers to the use of words and sentences to convey ideas. As children begin to

develop more complicated language, they produce longer words that require more fine motor control. By the time they are ready to go to school, most children have speech that is easily understood by an unfamiliar listener. However, some children take longer to develop their speech to a level where everything they say can be understood. These speech or language delays can occur for a variety of reasons.

Obtained from: http://www.childrensdisabilities.info/speech/guidelines.html

Common Causes of Delays
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Hearing Loss: From 12 months to 4 years of age language development is at its peak, so repeated ear infections during this time may affect speech and language. Language Delay: Children may have difficulty learning the meaning of words and how to use words in sentences. Learning delays affect language acquisition. Genetic Inheritance: It is common but not inevitable that late speech development runs in families. Can also be physical (cleft palate, dental malformations, etc) Bad Speech Habits: When children are beginning to speak they say many words incorrectly. If a child repeats an incorrect pattern long enough they learn it as a habit.

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Obtained from: http://www.childrensdisabilities.info/speech/guidelines.html

Speech Delay
y Speech delay is an impairment of voice, the articulation of

speech sounds, and/or fluency.
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Articulation disorder: the abnormal production of speech sounds. E.g. distortions, substitutions, omissions, additions

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Voice disorder: are abnormalities of speech related to volume, quality, or pitch. E.g. Nasality, Tourette¶s

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Fluency disorder: the abnormal flow of verbal expression, characterized by impaired rate and rhythm. E.g. Stuttering, Cluttering

Language Delay
y Language delay is impaired comprehension and/or use of a spoken, written, and/or other symbol systems RECEPTIVE vs. EXPRESSIVE
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Most common communication disorder*** Difficulties in areas such as: retrieving vocabulary, grammar, putting things together, following directions, social interaction, etc. FORM: phonology, morphology, syntax

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CONTENT: semantics (intent and meaning of language and its rule system) USE: pragmatics (who we are communicating with will determine what language we use

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Indicators for the Teacher
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Problems/Needs
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Difficulty socializing ‡ Poor eye contact. ‡ Inappropriate comments and answers to questions. ‡ Difficulty expressing wants, needs, and ideas ‡ Asks questions that are off-topic ‡ Has poor sense of humour ‡ Takes things literally ‡ Speech rambles. Emotional difficulties ‡ Low frustration level ‡ Gullible (literal interpretation of figurative language and jokes). Classroom issues ‡ Poor retention of learning. ‡ Problems with organizing and planning. ‡ Difficulty with higher-level thinking skills (deduction, inferences)

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Strengths
y It is not impossible for our students with Communication Disabilities to

succeed in a verbal world: Children with language disorders: Can compensate for their weaknesses through: ‡ Visual organizers. ‡ Anchor charts. ‡ Multi-sensory learning methods. ‡ Assistive Technology (Kidspiration, Clicker«). Children with speech disorders: Can overcome their difficulties through art (e.g.singing or acting make stuttering disappear).

Inclusion Strategies
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Environmental Accommodations  Arrange classroom for effective interactions  Music, books, games Instructional Accommodations  Visuals (ppt, ELMO, smartboard, written instruction)  Elicit language from students  Help students to monitor their own speech  Increase receptive language in the classroom  Listening buddies (rephrase information to each other) Assessment Accommodations  Simulated real-life circumstances to increase language use  Choice in assignments  Reduce number of tasks  Tape record students for self-evaluation

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Jigsaw
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Mark Kristin Leslie Anne

Strategies in Physical Education Stuttering Manual First Words (Pre school) Receptive Language Disorder

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