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INTRODUCTION

Mechanics of materials is a study of the


relationship between the external loads
on a body and the intensity of the internal
loads within the body.

This subject also involves the


deformations and stability of a body when
subjected to external forces.
EQUILIBRIUM OF A DEFORMABLE
BODY

External Forces
1. Surface Forces

- caused by direct
contact of other
bodys surface

2. Body Forces
- other body exerts a
force without contact
ELASTIC DEFORMATION
1. Initial 2. Small load 3. Unload

bonds
stretch

return to
initial
d
F
F Linear-
elastic
Elastic means reversible!
Non-Linear-
elastic
d
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PLASTIC DEFORMATION (METALS)
1. Initial 2. Small load 3. Unload
bonds
p lanes
stretch
still
& planes
sheared
shear

d plastic
d elastic + plastic

F
F
Plastic means permanent!
linear linear
elastic elastic
d
dplastic
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ENGINEERING STRESS
Tensile stress, s: Shear stress, t:
Ft Ft F

Area, A Area, A Fs

Fs
Ft
Fs Ft
Ft lb f N t= F
s= = 2 or 2
Ao
Ao in m
original area Stress has units:
before loading
N/m2 or lb /in2
f

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COMMON STATES OF STRESS
Simple tension: cable

F F
A o = cross sectional
area (when unloaded)
F
s= s s
Ao
Ski lift (photo courtesy
Torsion (a form of shear): drive shaft P.M. Anderson)

M Fs Ao
Ac
Fs
t =
Ao
M
2R
Note: t = M/AcR here.
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EQUILIBRIUM OF A DEFORMABLE
BODY
Internal Resultant Loadings
Objective of free body diagram (FBD) is to determine the
resultant force and moment acting within a body.
In general, there are 4 different types of resultant
loadings:
a) Normal force, N
b) Shear force, V
c) Torsional moment or torque, T
d) Bending moment, M
EQUILIBRIUM OF A DEFORMABLE
BODY
Equations of Equilibrium
Equilibrium of a body requires a balance
of forces and a balance of moments
F = 0 M O =0

For a body with x, y, z coordinate system


with originO,
F = 0, F = 0, F = 0
x y z

M x = 0,My = 0,Mz = 0

Best way to account for these forces is


to draw the bodys free-body diagram
(FBD).
STRESS
Distribution of internal loading is
important in mechanics of materials.
We will consider the material to be
continuous.
This intensity of internal force at a point is
called stress.
STRESS

Normal Stress
Force per unit area acting normal to A
Fz
s z = lim
A0 A

Shear Stress
= lim acting tangent to A
Force per unit tarea F x
A
zx
A0

Fy
t zy = lim
A0 A
Strain Energy

Strain-energy density is strain energy per unit volume


of material

u= U =
V 2

If material behavior is linear elastic, Hookes law applies,

u=
2 ( )


= 2
2E

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STRAIN ENERGY

When material is deformed by external loading,


energy is stored internally throughout its volume
Internal energy is also referred to as strain energy
Stress develops a force,
STRAIN ENERGY

F = A = (x y)

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SHEAR STRESS-STRAIN
Use thin-tube specimens and subject it to torsional
loading
Record measurements of applied torque and
resulting angle of twist

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SHEAR STRESS-STRAIN
Material will exhibit linear-elastic behavior till its
proportional limit, pl
Strain-hardening continues till it reaches ultimate
shear stress, u
Material loses shear strength till it fractures, at stress
of f

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Shear REVIEW

Hookes law for shear

G is shear modulus of elasticity or modulus


of rigidity

G can be measured as slope of line on - diagram, G = pl/ pl


The three material constants E, , and G is related by

= G G= E
2(1 + )

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OTHER COMMON STRESS
Simple compression:
STATES (1)

Ao

Canyon Bridge, Los Alamos, NM


(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

F Note: compressive
s= structure member
Ao (s < 0 here).
Balanced Rock, Arches
National Park
(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

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OTHER COMMON STRESS
STATES (2)
Bi-axial tension: Hydrostatic compression:

Pressurized tank Fish under water (photo courtesy


(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)
P.M. Anderson) s >0
q

sz > 0 s h< 0

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ENGINEERING STRAIN
Tensile strain: Lateral strain:
d /2
-dL
= d L =
Lo Lo wo
wo

d /2
Shear strain: L

q
x g = x/y = tan q

y 90 - q
Strain is always
90 dimensionless.

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STRESS-STRAIN TESTING
Typical tensile test Typical tensile
machine specimen

extensometer specimen

gauge
length

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STRESSSTRAIN BEHAVIOR
Table 1 - Room-Temperature Elastic and Shear Moduli, and Poissons Ratio for
Various Metal Alloys

Table 1 - Room-Temperature Elastic and Shear Moduli, and Poissons


Ratio for Various Metal Alloys
STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR
Modulus of Elasticity, E:
(also known as Young's modulus)

Hooke's Law:

s=E s F
E


Linear-
elastic F
simple
tension
test

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STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR

There are some material such as gray


cast iron, concrete and many polymers
which this elastic portion of the stress-
strain curve is not linear
Tangent modulus = E (Modulus of
elastic)
Schematic stressstrain diagram showing
non-linear elastic behavior, and how
secant and tangent moduli are
determined.
STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR
Slope of stress strain plot (which is
proportional to the elastic modulus)
depends on bond strength of metal

Force versus inter-atomic separation


for weakly and strongly bonded
atoms. The magnitude of the
modulus of elasticity is proportional
to the slope of each curve at the
equilibrium inter-atomic separation
ro.

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EXERCISE 1

A piece of copper originally 305 mm long is


pulled in tension with a stress of 276MPa. If the
deformation is entirely elastic, what will be the
resultant elongation?
ANSWER:

= 276 MPa
0 = 305

= = ()
0
0
=

276 (305 )
= 3
= 0.77
(11010 )

Note: E refer to stress-strain behavior table


EXERCISE 2

A piece of aluminum originally long is half of


600mm pulled in tension with a stress of
275MPa. If the deformation is entirely elastic,
what will be the resultant elongation?
ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF
MATERIALS

Poissons ratio
POISSONS RATIO
When body subjected to axial tensile force, it
elongates and contracts laterally
Similarly, it will contract and its sides expand laterally
when subjected to an axial compressive force

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POISSONS RATIO
Strains of the bar are:

Early 1800s, S.D. Poisson realized that within elastic range, ration of the two strains is a
constant value, since both are proportional.

is unique for homogenous and isotropic material


Why negative sign? Longitudinal elongation cause lateral contraction (-ve strain) and vice versa
Lateral strain is the same in all lateral (radial) directions
Poissons ratio is dimensionless, 0 0.5

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EXERCISE 3

A tensile stress is to be applied along the long axis


of a cylindrical brass rod that has a diameter of 10
mm. Determine the magnitude of the load
required to produce a 2.5 103 mm change in
diameter if the deformation is entirely elastic.
ANSWER:
= 1 0 = 2.5103
For strain in x-direction
2.5103
= = = 2.5104
0 10
Strain in Z direction
(2.5104 )
= = = 7.35104
0.34
Note: Refer to lecture slide for brass poissons ratio
= = 7.35104 97103 = 71.3
2
0 10103 2
= = = 71.3 ( )
2 2
= 5600
EXERCISE 4
From the tensile stress-strain
behavior for the brass specimen
shown in Figure 1, determine the
following:

a) The modulus of elasticity

b) The yield strength at a strain offset of


0.002

c) The maximum load that can be sustained


by a cylindrical specimen having an original
diameter of 12.8 mm

d) The change in length of a specimen


originally 250 mm long that is subjected to a
tensile stress of 345MPa
a)
2 1 (150 0)
= = = = 93.8
2 1 (0.0016 0)
b) 250MPa
c)
= 12.8
2
0
= =
2
3 2
12.810
= 450 2 = 57900
2
d)
= 0 = 0.06 250 = 15
YIELD STRENGTH, SY
Stress at which noticeable plastic deformation has
occurred.
when p = 0.002

tensile stress, s
sy = yield strength
sy
Note: for 2 inch sample
= 0.002 = z/z
z = 0.004 in

engineering strain,
p = 0.002

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TENSILE STRENGTH, TS
Maximum stress on engineering stress-strain curve.

TS
F = fracture or
sy
ultimate
engineering

strength
stress

Typical response of a metal


Neck acts
as stress
concentrator
strain
engineering strain
Metals: occurs when noticeable necking starts.
Polymers: occurs when polymer backbone chains are
aligned and about to break.
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Yield Strength
EXAMPLE 3.1 (SOLN)

At 0.2% strain, extrapolate line (dashed) parallel to OA


till it intersects stress-strain curve at A

YS = 469 MPa

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YIELD STRENGTH : COMPARISON
Graphite/
Metals/ Composites/
Ceramics/ Polymers
Alloys fibers
Semicond
2000
Steel (4140) qt

1000
Yield strength, sy (MPa)

Ti (5Al-2.5Sn) a
700 W (pure)

in ceramic matrix and epoxy matrix composites, since


600 Cu (71500) cw

since in tension, fracture usually occurs before yield.

in tension, fracture usually occurs before yield.


500 Mo (pure)
400 Steel (4140) a
Steel (1020) cd
300 Room T values
Al (6061) ag
,

Hard to measure,
Steel (1020) hr
Hard to measure

200
Ti (pure) a
Ta (pure)
Cu (71500) hr

100
dry
70 PC
60 Al (6061) a Nylon 6,6
50 PET
40 PVC humid
PP
30 H DPE

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LDPE
Tin (pure) 38
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TENSILE STRENGTH : COMPARISON
Graphite/
Metals/ Composites/
Ceramics/ Polymers
Alloys fibers
Semicond
5000 C fibers
Aramid fib
3000 E-glass fib
(MPa)

2000 Steel (4140) qt


A FRE (|| fiber)
1000 W (pure) Diamond GFRE (|| fiber)
Ti (5Al-2.5Sn) aa C FRE (|| fiber)
Steel (4140)
Cu (71500) cw Si nitride
Cu (71500) hr Al oxide
Steel (1020)
300 Al (6061) aag
Tensile strength, TS

200
Ti (pure)
Ta (pure) Room Temp. values
Al (6061) a
100 Si crystal wood(|| fiber)
<100> Nylon 6,6
Glass-soda PC PET
40 Concrete PVC GFRE ( fiber)
PP C FRE ( fiber)
30
A FRE( fiber)
H DPE
20 Graphite
LDPE

10

wood ( fiber)

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VARIABILITY IN MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Elastic modulus is material property


Critical properties depend largely on sample flaws
(defects, etc.). Large sample to sample variability.
Statistics
n
Mean S xn
x=
n
1
n 2

2
S xi - x
Standard Deviation s=
n -1

where n is the number of data points

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EXERCISE 5
The following tensile strengths were measured
for four specimens of the same steel alloy:
a) Compute the average tensile strength
b) Determine the standard deviation
Sample Number Tensile Strength
(MPa)
1 520
2 512
3 515
4 522
a)

4
( ) 520 + 512 + 515 + 522
= = = 517
4 4
=1
b)

1/2
4=1 2
= = 4.6
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STRESSSTRAIN BEHAVIOR OF DUCTILE
AND BRITTLE MATERIALS

Ductile Materials
Material that can subjected to large strains
before it ruptures is called a ductile
material.

Brittle Materials
Materials that exhibit little or no yielding
before failure are referred to as brittle
materials.
DUCTILITY
L -L
Plastic tensile strain at failure: % EL = f o x 100
L
o

smaller %EL
E ngineering
tensile
stress, s larger %EL Lo
Ao
Af Lf

Engineering tensile strain,

Ao - Af
Another ductility measure: % RA = x 100
Ao

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STRAIN ENERGY

Modulus of Toughness
Modulus of toughness, ut, represents
the entire area under the stressstrain
diagram.
It indicates the strain-energy density of the
material just before it fractures.
TOUGHNESS
Energy to break a unit volume of material
Approximate by the area under the stress-strain
curve.

E ngineering small toughness (ceramics)


tensile large toughness (metals)
stress, s
Adapted from Fig. 6.13, very small toughness
Callister 7e. (unreinforced polymers)

Engineering tensile strain,

Brittle fracture: elastic energy


Ductile fracture: elastic + plastic energy

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ELASTIC STRAIN RECOVERY

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HARDNESS
Resistance to permanently indenting the surface.
Large hardness means:
--resistance to plastic deformation or cracking in
compression.
--better wear properties.
apply known force measure size
e.g., of indent after
10 mm sphere removing load

Smaller indents
D d mean larger
hardness.

most brasses easy to machine cutting nitrided


plastics Al alloys steels file hard tools steels diamond

increasing hardness

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HARDNESS: MEASUREMENT

Rockwell
No major sample damage
Each scale runs to 130 but only useful in range 20-100.
Minor load 10 kg
Major load 60 (A), 100 (B) & 150 (C) kg
A = diamond, B = 1/16 in. ball, C = diamond

HB = Brinell Hardness
TS (psia) = 500 x HB
TS (MPa) = 3.45 x HB

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HARDNESS: MEASUREMENT
Table 6.5

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HARDENING
An increase in sy due to plastic deformation.
s
large hardening
sy
1
sy small hardening
0


Curve fit to the stress-strain response:

hardening exponent:
s
T
= K T
n n = 0.15 (some steels)
to n = 0.5 (some coppers)
true stress (F/A) true strain: ln(L/Lo)
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DESIGN OR SAFETY FACTORS
Design uncertainties mean we do not push the limit.
Factor of safety, N
Often N is
sy between
sworking = 1.2 and 4
N
Example: Calculate a diameter, d, to ensure that yield does not
occur in the 1045 carbon steel rod below.
Use a factor of safety of 5.
d
sy
sworking = 1045 plain
carbon steel:
N sy = 310 MPa
Lo

220,000N 5 TS = 565 MPa



d2 / 4
F = 220,000N
d = 0.067 m = 6.7 cm
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EXERCISE 6

A tensile testing is to be constructed that must


withstand a maximum load of 110 kN. The
design calls for two cylindrical support posts,
each which is to half of the maximum load.
Furthermore, plain-carbon steel ground and
polished shafting rounds are to be used: the
minimum yield of this alloy are 310 MPa
respectively. Specify a suitable diameter for
these support posts. (Use N = 4)
310
= = = 77.5
4

2

= =
2

110000
=2 =2 6
= 42.5
(77.510 )
SUMMARY
Stress and strain: These are size-independent
measures of load and displacement, respectively.
Elastic behavior: This reversible behavior often
shows a linear relation between stress and strain.
To minimize deformation, select a material with a
large elastic modulus (E or G).
Plastic behavior: This permanent deformation
behavior occurs when the tensile (or compressive)
uniaxial stress reaches sy.
Toughness: The energy needed to break a unit
volume of material.
Ductility: The plastic strain at failure.

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CHAPTER REVIEW
Tension test is the most important test for
determining material strengths. Results of normal
stress and normal strain can then be plotted.
Many engineering materials behave in a linear-
elastic manner, where stress is proportional to
strain, defined by Hookes law, = E. E is the
modulus of elasticity, and is measured from slope
of a stress-strain diagram
When material stressed beyond yield point,
permanent deformation will occur.

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CHAPTER REVIEW
Strain hardening causes further yielding of
material with increasing stress
At ultimate stress, localized region on specimen
begin to constrict, and starts necking. Fracture
occurs.
Ductile materials exhibit both plastic and elastic
behavior. Ductility specified by permanent
elongation to failure or by the permanent
reduction in cross-sectional area
Brittle materials exhibit little or no yielding before
failure
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Yield point for material can be increased by strain
hardening, by applying load great enough to cause
increase in stress causing yielding, then releasing
the load. The larger stress produced becomes the
new yield point for the material
Deformations of material under load causes strain
energy to be stored. Strain energy per unit
volume/strain energy density is equivalent to area
under stress-strain curve.

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The area up to the yield point of stress-strain
diagram is referred to as the modulus of
resilience
The entire area under the stress-strain diagram is
referred to as the modulus of toughness
Poissons ratio (), a dimensionless property that
measures the lateral strain to the longitudinal
strain [0 0.5]
For shear stress vs. strain diagram: within elastic
region, = G, where G is the shearing modulus,
found from the slope of the line within elastic
region

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G can also be obtained from the relationship of
G = E/[2(1+ )]

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L -L
Tensile stress, s: % EL = o f x 100
L
F
= L
o
s=
A Lo
Ao - Af
s=E % RA = x 100
= D Ao
Do
sy
sworking =
N
1
n 2

n 2
S xn S x - x
x= s= i
n -1
n
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