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INTRODUCTION

relationship between the external loads

on a body and the intensity of the internal

loads within the body.

deformations and stability of a body when

subjected to external forces.

EQUILIBRIUM OF A DEFORMABLE

BODY

External Forces

1. Surface Forces

- caused by direct

contact of other

bodys surface

2. Body Forces

- other body exerts a

force without contact

ELASTIC DEFORMATION

1. Initial 2. Small load 3. Unload

bonds

stretch

return to

initial

d

F

F Linear-

elastic

Elastic means reversible!

Non-Linear-

elastic

d

4

PLASTIC DEFORMATION (METALS)

1. Initial 2. Small load 3. Unload

bonds

p lanes

stretch

still

& planes

sheared

shear

d plastic

d elastic + plastic

F

F

Plastic means permanent!

linear linear

elastic elastic

d

dplastic

5

ENGINEERING STRESS

Tensile stress, s: Shear stress, t:

Ft Ft F

Area, A Area, A Fs

Fs

Ft

Fs Ft

Ft lb f N t= F

s= = 2 or 2

Ao

Ao in m

original area Stress has units:

before loading

N/m2 or lb /in2

f

6

COMMON STATES OF STRESS

Simple tension: cable

F F

A o = cross sectional

area (when unloaded)

F

s= s s

Ao

Ski lift (photo courtesy

Torsion (a form of shear): drive shaft P.M. Anderson)

M Fs Ao

Ac

Fs

t =

Ao

M

2R

Note: t = M/AcR here.

7

EQUILIBRIUM OF A DEFORMABLE

BODY

Internal Resultant Loadings

Objective of free body diagram (FBD) is to determine the

resultant force and moment acting within a body.

In general, there are 4 different types of resultant

loadings:

a) Normal force, N

b) Shear force, V

c) Torsional moment or torque, T

d) Bending moment, M

EQUILIBRIUM OF A DEFORMABLE

BODY

Equations of Equilibrium

Equilibrium of a body requires a balance

of forces and a balance of moments

F = 0 M O =0

with originO,

F = 0, F = 0, F = 0

x y z

M x = 0,My = 0,Mz = 0

to draw the bodys free-body diagram

(FBD).

STRESS

Distribution of internal loading is

important in mechanics of materials.

We will consider the material to be

continuous.

This intensity of internal force at a point is

called stress.

STRESS

Normal Stress

Force per unit area acting normal to A

Fz

s z = lim

A0 A

Shear Stress

= lim acting tangent to A

Force per unit tarea F x

A

zx

A0

Fy

t zy = lim

A0 A

Strain Energy

of material

u= U =

V 2

u=

2 ( )

= 2

2E

12

STRAIN ENERGY

energy is stored internally throughout its volume

Internal energy is also referred to as strain energy

Stress develops a force,

STRAIN ENERGY

F = A = (x y)

13

SHEAR STRESS-STRAIN

Use thin-tube specimens and subject it to torsional

loading

Record measurements of applied torque and

resulting angle of twist

14

SHEAR STRESS-STRAIN

Material will exhibit linear-elastic behavior till its

proportional limit, pl

Strain-hardening continues till it reaches ultimate

shear stress, u

Material loses shear strength till it fractures, at stress

of f

15

Shear REVIEW

of rigidity

The three material constants E, , and G is related by

= G G= E

2(1 + )

16

OTHER COMMON STRESS

Simple compression:

STATES (1)

Ao

(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

F Note: compressive

s= structure member

Ao (s < 0 here).

Balanced Rock, Arches

National Park

(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

17

OTHER COMMON STRESS

STATES (2)

Bi-axial tension: Hydrostatic compression:

(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

P.M. Anderson) s >0

q

sz > 0 s h< 0

18

ENGINEERING STRAIN

Tensile strain: Lateral strain:

d /2

-dL

= d L =

Lo Lo wo

wo

d /2

Shear strain: L

q

x g = x/y = tan q

y 90 - q

Strain is always

90 dimensionless.

19

STRESS-STRAIN TESTING

Typical tensile test Typical tensile

machine specimen

extensometer specimen

gauge

length

20

STRESSSTRAIN BEHAVIOR

Table 1 - Room-Temperature Elastic and Shear Moduli, and Poissons Ratio for

Various Metal Alloys

Ratio for Various Metal Alloys

STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR

Modulus of Elasticity, E:

(also known as Young's modulus)

Hooke's Law:

s=E s F

E

Linear-

elastic F

simple

tension

test

22

STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR

cast iron, concrete and many polymers

which this elastic portion of the stress-

strain curve is not linear

Tangent modulus = E (Modulus of

elastic)

Schematic stressstrain diagram showing

non-linear elastic behavior, and how

secant and tangent moduli are

determined.

STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR

Slope of stress strain plot (which is

proportional to the elastic modulus)

depends on bond strength of metal

for weakly and strongly bonded

atoms. The magnitude of the

modulus of elasticity is proportional

to the slope of each curve at the

equilibrium inter-atomic separation

ro.

24

EXERCISE 1

pulled in tension with a stress of 276MPa. If the

deformation is entirely elastic, what will be the

resultant elongation?

ANSWER:

= 276 MPa

0 = 305

= = ()

0

0

=

276 (305 )

= 3

= 0.77

(11010 )

EXERCISE 2

600mm pulled in tension with a stress of

275MPa. If the deformation is entirely elastic,

what will be the resultant elongation?

ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF

MATERIALS

Poissons ratio

POISSONS RATIO

When body subjected to axial tensile force, it

elongates and contracts laterally

Similarly, it will contract and its sides expand laterally

when subjected to an axial compressive force

29

POISSONS RATIO

Strains of the bar are:

Early 1800s, S.D. Poisson realized that within elastic range, ration of the two strains is a

constant value, since both are proportional.

Why negative sign? Longitudinal elongation cause lateral contraction (-ve strain) and vice versa

Lateral strain is the same in all lateral (radial) directions

Poissons ratio is dimensionless, 0 0.5

30

EXERCISE 3

of a cylindrical brass rod that has a diameter of 10

mm. Determine the magnitude of the load

required to produce a 2.5 103 mm change in

diameter if the deformation is entirely elastic.

ANSWER:

= 1 0 = 2.5103

For strain in x-direction

2.5103

= = = 2.5104

0 10

Strain in Z direction

(2.5104 )

= = = 7.35104

0.34

Note: Refer to lecture slide for brass poissons ratio

= = 7.35104 97103 = 71.3

2

0 10103 2

= = = 71.3 ( )

2 2

= 5600

EXERCISE 4

From the tensile stress-strain

behavior for the brass specimen

shown in Figure 1, determine the

following:

0.002

by a cylindrical specimen having an original

diameter of 12.8 mm

originally 250 mm long that is subjected to a

tensile stress of 345MPa

a)

2 1 (150 0)

= = = = 93.8

2 1 (0.0016 0)

b) 250MPa

c)

= 12.8

2

0

= =

2

3 2

12.810

= 450 2 = 57900

2

d)

= 0 = 0.06 250 = 15

YIELD STRENGTH, SY

Stress at which noticeable plastic deformation has

occurred.

when p = 0.002

tensile stress, s

sy = yield strength

sy

Note: for 2 inch sample

= 0.002 = z/z

z = 0.004 in

engineering strain,

p = 0.002

35

TENSILE STRENGTH, TS

Maximum stress on engineering stress-strain curve.

TS

F = fracture or

sy

ultimate

engineering

strength

stress

Neck acts

as stress

concentrator

strain

engineering strain

Metals: occurs when noticeable necking starts.

Polymers: occurs when polymer backbone chains are

aligned and about to break.

36

Yield Strength

EXAMPLE 3.1 (SOLN)

till it intersects stress-strain curve at A

YS = 469 MPa

37

YIELD STRENGTH : COMPARISON

Graphite/

Metals/ Composites/

Ceramics/ Polymers

Alloys fibers

Semicond

2000

Steel (4140) qt

1000

Yield strength, sy (MPa)

Ti (5Al-2.5Sn) a

700 W (pure)

600 Cu (71500) cw

500 Mo (pure)

400 Steel (4140) a

Steel (1020) cd

300 Room T values

Al (6061) ag

,

Hard to measure,

Steel (1020) hr

Hard to measure

200

Ti (pure) a

Ta (pure)

Cu (71500) hr

100

dry

70 PC

60 Al (6061) a Nylon 6,6

50 PET

40 PVC humid

PP

30 H DPE

20

LDPE

Tin (pure) 38

10

TENSILE STRENGTH : COMPARISON

Graphite/

Metals/ Composites/

Ceramics/ Polymers

Alloys fibers

Semicond

5000 C fibers

Aramid fib

3000 E-glass fib

(MPa)

A FRE (|| fiber)

1000 W (pure) Diamond GFRE (|| fiber)

Ti (5Al-2.5Sn) aa C FRE (|| fiber)

Steel (4140)

Cu (71500) cw Si nitride

Cu (71500) hr Al oxide

Steel (1020)

300 Al (6061) aag

Tensile strength, TS

200

Ti (pure)

Ta (pure) Room Temp. values

Al (6061) a

100 Si crystal wood(|| fiber)

<100> Nylon 6,6

Glass-soda PC PET

40 Concrete PVC GFRE ( fiber)

PP C FRE ( fiber)

30

A FRE( fiber)

H DPE

20 Graphite

LDPE

10

wood ( fiber)

1 39

VARIABILITY IN MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Critical properties depend largely on sample flaws

(defects, etc.). Large sample to sample variability.

Statistics

n

Mean S xn

x=

n

1

n 2

2

S xi - x

Standard Deviation s=

n -1

where n is the number of data points

40

EXERCISE 5

The following tensile strengths were measured

for four specimens of the same steel alloy:

a) Compute the average tensile strength

b) Determine the standard deviation

Sample Number Tensile Strength

(MPa)

1 520

2 512

3 515

4 522

a)

4

( ) 520 + 512 + 515 + 522

= = = 517

4 4

=1

b)

1/2

4=1 2

= = 4.6

1

STRESSSTRAIN BEHAVIOR OF DUCTILE

AND BRITTLE MATERIALS

Ductile Materials

Material that can subjected to large strains

before it ruptures is called a ductile

material.

Brittle Materials

Materials that exhibit little or no yielding

before failure are referred to as brittle

materials.

DUCTILITY

L -L

Plastic tensile strain at failure: % EL = f o x 100

L

o

smaller %EL

E ngineering

tensile

stress, s larger %EL Lo

Ao

Af Lf

Ao - Af

Another ductility measure: % RA = x 100

Ao

44

STRAIN ENERGY

Modulus of Toughness

Modulus of toughness, ut, represents

the entire area under the stressstrain

diagram.

It indicates the strain-energy density of the

material just before it fractures.

TOUGHNESS

Energy to break a unit volume of material

Approximate by the area under the stress-strain

curve.

tensile large toughness (metals)

stress, s

Adapted from Fig. 6.13, very small toughness

Callister 7e. (unreinforced polymers)

Ductile fracture: elastic + plastic energy

46

ELASTIC STRAIN RECOVERY

47

HARDNESS

Resistance to permanently indenting the surface.

Large hardness means:

--resistance to plastic deformation or cracking in

compression.

--better wear properties.

apply known force measure size

e.g., of indent after

10 mm sphere removing load

Smaller indents

D d mean larger

hardness.

plastics Al alloys steels file hard tools steels diamond

increasing hardness

48

HARDNESS: MEASUREMENT

Rockwell

No major sample damage

Each scale runs to 130 but only useful in range 20-100.

Minor load 10 kg

Major load 60 (A), 100 (B) & 150 (C) kg

A = diamond, B = 1/16 in. ball, C = diamond

HB = Brinell Hardness

TS (psia) = 500 x HB

TS (MPa) = 3.45 x HB

49

HARDNESS: MEASUREMENT

Table 6.5

50

HARDENING

An increase in sy due to plastic deformation.

s

large hardening

sy

1

sy small hardening

0

Curve fit to the stress-strain response:

hardening exponent:

s

T

= K T

n n = 0.15 (some steels)

to n = 0.5 (some coppers)

true stress (F/A) true strain: ln(L/Lo)

51

DESIGN OR SAFETY FACTORS

Design uncertainties mean we do not push the limit.

Factor of safety, N

Often N is

sy between

sworking = 1.2 and 4

N

Example: Calculate a diameter, d, to ensure that yield does not

occur in the 1045 carbon steel rod below.

Use a factor of safety of 5.

d

sy

sworking = 1045 plain

carbon steel:

N sy = 310 MPa

Lo

d2 / 4

F = 220,000N

d = 0.067 m = 6.7 cm

52

EXERCISE 6

withstand a maximum load of 110 kN. The

design calls for two cylindrical support posts,

each which is to half of the maximum load.

Furthermore, plain-carbon steel ground and

polished shafting rounds are to be used: the

minimum yield of this alloy are 310 MPa

respectively. Specify a suitable diameter for

these support posts. (Use N = 4)

310

= = = 77.5

4

2

= =

2

110000

=2 =2 6

= 42.5

(77.510 )

SUMMARY

Stress and strain: These are size-independent

measures of load and displacement, respectively.

Elastic behavior: This reversible behavior often

shows a linear relation between stress and strain.

To minimize deformation, select a material with a

large elastic modulus (E or G).

Plastic behavior: This permanent deformation

behavior occurs when the tensile (or compressive)

uniaxial stress reaches sy.

Toughness: The energy needed to break a unit

volume of material.

Ductility: The plastic strain at failure.

55

CHAPTER REVIEW

Tension test is the most important test for

determining material strengths. Results of normal

stress and normal strain can then be plotted.

Many engineering materials behave in a linear-

elastic manner, where stress is proportional to

strain, defined by Hookes law, = E. E is the

modulus of elasticity, and is measured from slope

of a stress-strain diagram

When material stressed beyond yield point,

permanent deformation will occur.

56

CHAPTER REVIEW

Strain hardening causes further yielding of

material with increasing stress

At ultimate stress, localized region on specimen

begin to constrict, and starts necking. Fracture

occurs.

Ductile materials exhibit both plastic and elastic

behavior. Ductility specified by permanent

elongation to failure or by the permanent

reduction in cross-sectional area

Brittle materials exhibit little or no yielding before

failure

57

Yield point for material can be increased by strain

hardening, by applying load great enough to cause

increase in stress causing yielding, then releasing

the load. The larger stress produced becomes the

new yield point for the material

Deformations of material under load causes strain

energy to be stored. Strain energy per unit

volume/strain energy density is equivalent to area

under stress-strain curve.

58

The area up to the yield point of stress-strain

diagram is referred to as the modulus of

resilience

The entire area under the stress-strain diagram is

referred to as the modulus of toughness

Poissons ratio (), a dimensionless property that

measures the lateral strain to the longitudinal

strain [0 0.5]

For shear stress vs. strain diagram: within elastic

region, = G, where G is the shearing modulus,

found from the slope of the line within elastic

region

59

G can also be obtained from the relationship of

G = E/[2(1+ )]

60

L -L

Tensile stress, s: % EL = o f x 100

L

F

= L

o

s=

A Lo

Ao - Af

s=E % RA = x 100

= D Ao

Do

sy

sworking =

N

1

n 2

n 2

S xn S x - x

x= s= i

n -1

n

61

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