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Dr s &s .

s Ghandhy engineering
collage , surat
PREPARED BY

NAME ENROLLMENT NO:

CHAUDHARI KHUSHBU 140230113004


CHAUDHARI POONAM 140230113005
PATEL BRIJAL 140230113032
PATEL SNEHAL 140230113040
UNNATI BHURKUD 140230113054
VASAVA AESTAR 140230113057
VEKARIYA KRUPALI 140230113058
GAMIT PRIYA 110230113056
sUGAR INDUSTRY

Guided by : Dr sanjay singh


CONTENT
Introduction
Process
Characteristics
Treatment of waste water
Disposal of waste water
production from beet
INTRODUCTION
Production of sugar from sugar cane is a
seasonal operation, depending on the availability
of sugar cane.
Which lasts from October to May Sugar can also
be produced from beet.
The production activity being limited to about
100 days in a year.
As a result of its seasonal nature , sugar industry
presents peculiar problems for pollution control.
The sludge thus produced is called lime mud.
It is dewatered on vacuum filters and the filtrate is recycled.
The dewatered lime mud is disposed of the clarified juice is
treated with sulfur dioxide to remove its pale yellow colour.
Double carbonation may also be done.
The juice is then heated further to remove moisture from it
and is then passed through vacuum pans and crystallizers
for further removal of moisture and to encourage
crystallization.
Moisture content of the juice at inlet to the crystallizer is
about 46%.
Centrifugation of the juice separates the crystals from the
remaining moisture.
This liquid is called molasses and is the raw material for
production of alcohol.
The sugar crystals sticking to the wall of the centrifuge are
scraped off , sieved , graded and packed in bags.
PRODUCTION FROM SUGAR CANE
Cane, cut from the fields , is washed in water ,
cut into small pieces and crushed to extract the
raw juice.
This operation produces a solid waste in the
form of bagasse , which is raw material for
paper making.
The juice is then heated to 102 C , its pH is
adjusted between 7.6 and 7.8 with lime and it
is settled in multitray clarifiers to remove
suspended solid and unreacted lime from juice.
Characteristics of waste water streams
from various operations
Treatment of waste water
Plain settling:
Data collected from the column settling tests were used to
develop families of curves between overall percent
removals versus overflow rate and detention time.
An equation relating overall removal, initial suspended
solids concentration and overflow rate was offered for the
design of primary settling tank with initial suspended
solids concentration up to 450 mg/l.
In order to account for turbulence, inlet and outlet
condition and other factors, which can affect settling
process in actual practice.
A factor ranging from 1.25 to 1.75 and detention time
multiplied by a factor from 1.5 to 2.0 .
Anaerobic digestion
They concluded that UASB reactor offers a viable solution for handling
sugar mill waste water.
At a retention time of a 6 hours and an average temperature of 26 C, a
loading rate of 12.5 kg COD/m per day gave 90% destruction of influent
COD and methane production of 0.2 m per kg COD destroyed.
The influent required nutrient supplementation; alkali addition at the
rate of 0.6 g per gram of influent COD accounted for nearly 70% of the
annual running cost.
The granular sludge retained 50% of its methanogenic activity even
after 100 days of storage.
The sludge was found to readily adapt to distillery waste and
slaughterhouse wastes.
To get 97% removal efficiency of COD a modified rotating biological
contactor with four compartments and fed it with synthetic sugar cane
waste water to study the biokinetic coefficient based on Kornegay and
Hudson model.
It also coagulated turbidity from the waste water and removed the
colour present in the waste water.
Treatment in lagoons
It is widely practiced in sugar industry.
Aerobic lagoons is possible only if the organic
load is limited to 60kg/ha/day.
Aerobic pond system can produce a
satisfactory quality effluent.
This waste is high in carbohydrate but low in
nitrogen and phosphorus.
Activated sludge process
It is adopted where land is not available for constructing
ponds.
Most full scale plants treating about 5000m/day operate at
MLSS of 2000-4000 mg/l. Annul startup may take about 5
weeks to develop MLSS of 2000mg/l with molasses and
sewage.
A major problem with the activated sludge in bulking , which
result in poor settling and rapid loss of biomass from the
secondary clarifier.
One or more of the following factors may be responsible for
bulking, nutrient imbalance , low pH, low DO in aeration tank
, high organic loading , greater than 0.7 kg BOD/kg MLSS/day.
A BOD:N:P ratio from 100:2.5:0.5 to 100:5:1 was
recommended by miller.
Trickling filtration
On a large scale trickling filtration has not been favoured
bcz of long induction period, high recirculation rates for
high strength wastes and the risk of blockages .
Demonstrated BOD reduction from 70 to 90%.
Media used were stone or plastic material.
Two stage filtration was done.
The use of rotating RBC for treating sugar mill effluent
with more than 80% COD removals.
The viability of biogas generation from a mixture of press
mud and domestic sewage.
The maximum COD removal efficiency was found to be
70% with biogas yield of 0.65 m per kg COD.
Nitrogen content in the digested sludge was found to be
2.32%.
Solid wastes
The two solid wastes generated in the manufacturing
of sugar are;
1) bagasse 2) press mud.
Bagasse is produced during the crushing operation. It
has calorific value of about 1920 Kcal/kg and is mainly
used as a fuel in the factorys boiler.
Press mud contains all non sucrose impurities along
with caco3 precipitate and sulphate.
Press mud from double sulphitation contains valuable
nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium , etc . and is
therefore used as a fertilizer.
Press mud from double carbonation is used as a landfill.
GPCB standers
Disposal of waste water
Sugar mills are almost located in rural areas,
where the raw material is easily available.
Therefore disposal of the raw waste water may be
done on land for irrigation.
Direct disposal into nallas or streams in the vicinity
of the mill leads to stagnation and generation of
obnoxious small .
The waste water also becomes black in colour the
characteristics of the waste water show that it can
pollute the land as well as ground water.
The COD:BOD ratio is favorable for subjecting to
the waste water to biological treatment.
PRODUCTION FROM BEET
Beets are dug of from the fields either mechanically or
manually and conveyed to the factory through an open
channel called flume.
The fruits along the bottom of the flume and get partially
washed.
The flume end in a screen where the fruits are retained.
While the water is collected treated by settling, filtration
and disinfection before return to the head end of the
flume.
The washed beets are passed over a picking table where
the spoiled beets and foreign material are removed and
disposed of as animal feed.
The washed beets are weighed sliced into long ,narrow V
shaped pieces called cossettes and conveyed diffuser for
extraction for sugar.
The raw juice from the diffuser is heated and discharge
into the first carbonation tank where it is treated with
milk of lime and carbon dioxide.
The sugar crystals are separated by centrifugation. The
residue beet molasses is either sold or further treated
for recovery of sugar by the steffens process.
Sugar beet juice can also be treated with ion exchanger
for the removal of non sugars from second carbonation
before evaporation and crystallization.
This increases sugar yield produce less molasses which
are treated by ion exchanger and are converted into an
edible product.