refers to the expulsion of human fetus before the period of viability
Classification of the Expulsion of Human Fetus
1. Direct Abortion
- it is intentionally or deliberately done
2. Indirect Abortion
- it is unintentional
3. Spontaneous Abortion
- it is accidental
Period of Viability
- refers to the stage of gestation when the human fetus can survive outside the uterus - the period when the baby has the ability to live in the outside world with or without medical assistance - usually starts at the end of the 28th week of gestation
Different Types of Abortion
1. Complete Abortion
- all contents of the uterus such as the pre-born child and the placenta have been expelled from the uterus
2. Incomplete Abortion
- parts of the pre-born child and/or placenta remain within the uterus
3. Early Abortion
- abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy - includes embryonic stage from the moment of conception
4. Induced Abortion
- an intentional abortion brought about by mechanical or chemical means - necessarily direct
5. Criminal Abortion
- (illegal) abortion committed outside the parameters set by law promulgated by legislative authority of the State
miscarriage occurring in 3 or more consecutive pregnancies
7.g. Infected Abortion
.associated with and possibly caused by an infection of the uterus
.6. venereal disease (sexually transmitted infections)
8.associated with and possibility caused by an infection of the uterus or the genital tract . Septic Abortion
. Habitual Abortion
unintentional expulsion of a fetus . Spontaneous Abortion
.may occur in one out of 7 or 8 pregnancies usually during first 3 months .caused by disease or accident .9.some causes: pneumonia sexual intercourse in influenza early months of syphilis pregnancies
includes vaginal bleeding . Threatened Abortion
.cure: bed rest and appropriate medications
11.type of spontaneous abortion .type of spontaneous abortion .commonly called miscarriage .may be brought about by pathologic condition or accident causing definite expulsion of the human fetus
. Inevitable Abortion
.10.prognosis is doubtful .
.12.direct and deliberate performance of expelling a human fetus to restore the mother¶s health and/or save her from death
.not indirect abortion .
sucks the pieces through the tube and deposits them into a bag .assemble and check body parts to ensure complete abortion
. inserts curette to cervix and to uterus .done during first trimester up to 16 weeks .suction machine tears the baby apart.dilate the cervix. Suction Abortion
.Different Methods of Surgical Abortion
Dilation & Curettage (D & C) Abortion
.baby is out apart .parts are removed and checked for completeness
.insert curette and scrape the uterine walls .2.employed during the first trimester of pregnancy .
Dilation & Evacuation (D & E) Abortion
.3.employed during the first half of second trimester of pregnancy
brain hemorrhage.replace it with saline or urea solution .withdrawal of about 200 milliliters of amniotic fluid from the amniotic sac . dehydration. Saline Abortion
. and convulsions
.the baby breathes in and swallows this concentration and dies painfully over a period of hours from salt poisoning. ³saline solution method´ .³intra-amniotic injection´.4.
burns the outer layer skin (cherry red color)
5. Dilation and Extraction (D&X) Abortion
.used in the late second and third trimester of gestational age .even used during the period of viability (³partial-birth abortion´)
Guided by ultrasound. the abortionist grasps the baby's leg with surgical forceps.
into the birth canal.The baby's leg is pulled out.
.. in breach position.
The abortionist delivers the baby's entire body. except for the head..
The abortionist jams scissors into the baby's skull. The scissors are then opened to enlarge the hole..
. The child's brain is then sucked out and the baby is "evacuated" by the abortionist.
.The scissors are removed and a suction catheter is inserted.
(8 milliliters) injected into the uterine.the baby is then either left to die or deliberately lived
.Caesarian section done during the last trimester of pregnancy .6.during the late second trimester and third trimester of gestation . contracts to expel the baby (20 hours)
7. Hysteretomy Abortion
.uterus is surgically opened and the baby is lifted out . Prostaglandin Abortion
8.ultrasound imagery is used to locate the baby so that a long needle may be guided to the heart .potassium chloride is injected causing the baby to have an immediate heart attack .employed during about sixteen weeks .after a period of days. Inter-cardiac Injection Abortion
. the dead baby is delivered
Endometritis 7. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) 6. Cervical Lacerations 3. Cervical. Ectopic Pregnancies 5.Potential Physical Effects of Abortion
1. Ovarian. & Liver Cancer 8. Uterine Perforation 2. Death
. Placenta Previa 4.
Illegal Drug Use 7. Loss of Pleasure during Intercourse
. Anorexia b. Bulimia 6.Psychological Effect
1. Loss of Self-confidence & Self-esteem 5. Eating Disorders a. Hysterical Outbreaks 4. Suicidal Attempts 3. Flashback 2.
performed deliberately and willfully.Is Abortion Moral?
As long as it is direct.
. abortion is immoral.
regardless of religious belief and social orientations. and willfully for whatever reasons.Against Natural Law
It is against the order of right reason which dictates. that innocent life must not be taken directly.
. It breaks and destroys not only the natural bond between parents who submit for abortion and abortus ± the baby who is aborted. but also the natural function of parents to parent their child. deliberately.
Psalm 106:37-38 5.Biblical Condemnations
1. Deuteronomy 27:25 2. Jeremiah 22:17 4. Exodus 21:22
. Jeremiah 7:6 3. Proverbs 6:17 6.
Life must be protected with the utmost care from the moment of conception: abortion and infanticide are abominable crimes.´
. Gaudium et Spes.Recent Powerful Church¶s Documents
1. and men must carry it out in manner worthy of themselves. no. the Lord of life. has entrusted to men the noble mission of safeguarding life. Vatican II. 51
1968.2. . Pope John Paul II. 89
³Absolute respect for every innocent human life also requires the exercise of conscientious objection in relation to procure abortion .
. It runs completely to the health care profession which is meant to be an impassioned and unflinching affirmation of life. no. Humanae Vitae. Pope Paul VI. 4
³We must once again declare that . directly willed and procured abortion even if for therapeutic reasons [is] to be absolutely excluded as [a] licit means of regulating birth. . . Evangelium Vitae. .
Canonical Penalty for Abortion Latae Sententiae Excommunication
.the person brings instant excommunication upon himself or herself with his/her act
Scope of Penalty:
a.the nurse .other health care providers who assist and help during the procedure b. the boyfriend or husband who encourage the woman to go to an abortionist c. those who provide assistance in any form without which abortion would not be possible . the parents who push their daughter to submit for abortion
.the abortionist .
provides a way for the realization of abortion f.d. accomplices
. in one way or the other. a friend who counsels and advises that abortion is an alternative e. anybody who.
. Indirect abortion is the foreseen (at least with probability) but unintended loss of the fetus following upon a medical (or surgical) procedure necessary to preserve the life or health of the mother.When is Abortion Morally Allowed
ABORTION is morally justifiable when it is INDIRECT ± that is ± when it is not willfully employed as an end or a means.
would be morally as well as obstetrically wrong. . which is sometimes advised in this case.the use of tampon would also be immoral under the circumstances
.bed rest and appropriate medications are the only treatments .What should be done during specific circumstances?
During Threatened Abortion
.termination by curettage.
If the cervix is dilating of its own accord. and the patient is hemorrhaging and is in immediate danger of bleeding to death. by then. the subsequent appropriate procedure does not have any moral objection at all.
. .During Inevitable Abortion
. D&C is the appropriate health care intervention. the fetus has already been dead because of lack of oxygen. It is morally allowed if the placenta is determined to be already detached so that. which is indicative of incomplete abortion.If the fetus has already been expelled while the placenta remains.
With moral certainty that the fetus is already dead.During Severe Hemorrhage in Inevitable Abortion
. .Severe bleeding poses a grave threat to the mother¶s life. so that there is no moral objection that may surface.Health care practitioners are morally allowed to scrape and empty the uterus only when they are sure that the baby has already been dead. the health care practitioner immediately proceeds with the appropriate health care intervention that is designed to save the mother. as medically indicated.
depending upon the results: a diagnosis must not be the equivalent of a death sentence.It is gravely opposed to moral law when this is done with the thought of possibly inducing an abortion.In the case of pre-natal check-up and treatment. there is no moral problem if it respects the life and integrity of the embryo and the human fetus and is directed toward its safeguarding or healing as an individual.Treatment of Human Embryo
The innocent victim of a criminal attack is allowed to eject or destroy the sperm before conception takes place. it must be employed before there is any probability that an impregnated (fertilized) ovum is already existing. . .
. it would take the form of direct abortion which is never permissible. Unjust aggression is the moral basis which justifies the victim.The innocent human life should not suffer punishment for the crime committed by the perpetrator. Otherwise.Rape and Incest
.If any means is used to remove it from the uterus or fallopian tubes.
redeemed by the blood of Christ.Human life begins to exist at the moment of conception or fertilization. the child has the right to life.The inviolable right to life proceeds from the dignity of the human person created according to the image and likeness of God. and sanctified by the Holy Spirit. It must be respected and protected absolutely from the moment of conception. . From its conception.Moral Teaching on the Inviolability of Human Life
The sin of abortion is reserved for absolution to the bishop or a priest delegated by him. immoral.Pointers for Health Care Practitioner
1. This includes therapeutic abortion as the case may be. A cooperation without which direct abortion cannot come to its completion is an ample ground for automatic excommunication. morally permissible under the principle of double effect. Abortion which is not directly willed as an end or means and which is merely seen and tolerated as evil effect is indirect and thus. 2. Abortion willed as an end or a means of another end is direct and thus.
. if the fetus is viable and the mother is in danger of death. direct removal of which constitutes direct abortion rendering the procedure immoral. termination of pregnancy for premature delivery is medically advisable incurring no moral objection. if the fetus is not viable. if the mother is in danger of death.3. the principle of double effect has to be invoked so that the procedure constitutes indirect abortion which is morally allowed. it is morally licit to remove it. if it is medically indicated that the fetus is dead. In case of spontaneous-inevitable abortion.
removal of the fetus is. In case of abruptio placentae. if the placenta is completely detached causing the death of the fetus and that hemorrhage follows. in which case. if the placenta is not yet completely detached and that the non-viable fetus is still alive. removal of said fetus may constitute direct abortion which is not morally permissible. of course morally licit.4. the principle of double effect has to be employed. again.
. consultation with moral authorities. This can be done by means of reading books in health ethics and morality. Responsibility must be taken to dispel any vincible ignorance and to obtain knowledge about surrounding issues and moral principles relative to the removal of the fetus for the sake of the mother¶s health so as to establish clear and certain conscience in whatever procedure and / or cooperation to be employed. and others.