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Viterbi Decoders

Chen, Chao-Nan

Chu, Hsi-Cheng

Convolutional code

Viterbi decoder

In-place path metric updating

Inserting pipeline levels into ACS

Convolutional Codes

Convolutional encoders map information streams into a long code sequence.

k = 1 bit input blocks produce n = 2 code symbols each.

The code rate k/n expresses the information per coded bit and the constraint

length v defines the encoder memory order.

This encoder has 2(v 1) = 4 states.

input output

Viterbi Algorithm (VA)

The most commonly employed decoding technique that can be implemented

using either software or digital hardware.

VA uses the trellis diagram (Fig.2) and can theoretically perform maximum

likelihood decoding.

It finds the most likely path by means of suitable distance metric between the

received sequence and all the trellis paths.

00 00 00 00 00 00

11 11 11 11 11

input bit 0

01 10 10 10 10

input bit 1 11 11 11

10 00 00 00

11 01 01 01 01 01 01 01

10 10 10

Fig.2 Trellis diagram representation of the encoder of Fig.1

Viterbi Decoder

BMU: BM are computed from introduced input data

ACSU: PMs of all states are updated according to equation (1)

SMU: The stored decisions are employed in the SMU to build a unique

decoded output

possible

(1)

BM([k][i])(t): Branch metric of the transtion from state k at t to state i at t+1

ACS

Input Unit Memory Unit Output

(BMU) Unit (SMU)

In-place Path Metric State State Overwrites previous

i 2i metric of state i

Updating

Efficiently save half State State Overwrites previous

i+2v-1 2i+1 metric of state i+2v-1

memory size

Fig. 3. Partial trellis diagram or butterfly for

in-place computation of updated path metrics.

0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 2 4 1

2 2 2 4 1 2

3 3 3 6 5 3

4 4 4 1 2 4

5 5 5 3 6 5

6 6 6 5 3 6

7 7 7 7 7 7

(a) (b)

Fig. 4. Example for v=3: (a) butterflies in the traditional approach;

(b) states and butterfies during one full cycle of in-place computation

State State

i 2i

State State

i+32 2i+1

Table 1. State arrangement and path metric Figure 6. A novel architecture for

updating for constraint length 7 (64 states) the Viterbi decoder

memory for constraint length 7 (64 states)

Cycle 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Iterarion 0

Address(DpRAM0-3) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Address(DpRAM4-7) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Iteration 1

Address(DpRAM0-3) 0 2 4 6 1 3 5 7

Address(DpRAM4-7) 1 3 5 7 0 2 4 6

State State

i 2i

State State

i+32 2i+1

Table 1. State arrangement and path metric Figure 6. A novel architecture for

updating for constraint length 7 (64 states) the Viterbi decoder

memory for constraint length 7 (64 states)

Cycle 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Iterarion 0

Address(DpRAM0-3) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Address(DpRAM4-7) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Iteration 1

Address(DpRAM0-3) 0 2 4 6 1 3 5 7

Address(DpRAM4-7) 1 3 5 7 0 2 4 6

State State

i 2i

State State

i+32 2i+1

Table 1. State arrangement and path metric Figure 6. A novel architecture for

updating for constraint length 7 (64 states) the Viterbi decoder

memory for constraint length 7 (64 states)

Cycle 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Iterarion 0

Address(DpRAM0-3) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Address(DpRAM4-7) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Iteration 1

Address(DpRAM0-3) 0 2 4 6 1 3 5 7

Address(DpRAM4-7) 1 3 5 7 0 2 4 6

State State

i 2i

State State

i+32 2i+1

updating for constraint length 7 (64 states) the Viterbi decoder

memory for constraint length 7 (64 states)

Cycle 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Iterarion 0

Address(DpRAM0-3) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Address(DpRAM4-7) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Iteration 1

Address(DpRAM0-3) 0 2 4 6 1 3 5 7

Address(DpRAM4-7) 1 3 5 7 0 2 4 6

Insert Pipeline Levels into ACS

Generally, the maximum number of ACS pipeline levels is only dependent

on the ratio N/P (N: number of states ; P: number of ACS unit)

(N/P) from 1 to 64

N/P 1 2 4 8 16 32 64

ACS pipline levels 1 1 2 5 10 20 40

PM[k](t)

+

BM[k][i](t)

Comparator Selector PM[i](t+1)

PM[j](t)

+

BM[j][i](t)

Conclusion

the decoding speed is LP/N 5/8 of a state-parallel ACS

instead of P/N.

selecting a large enough ratio N/P

and hence power, is the most crucial while moderate

decoding speed degradation is allowed.

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