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Weston Philips 1/27/05

http://www.dot.ca.gov/dist1/d1traffic/cap/curve.jpg

Superelevation Vertical Alignment

Superelevation

A different angle on superelevation?

Ch. 3 Elements of Design In Horizontal Alignment Section p. 173 Ch. 2 Alignments Section 2A-2, 2A-3

4. centerline Rotate about inner edge of pavement Rotate about outside edge of pavement Rotate about center of median (Divided) . 3. Rotate pavement about 2.Axis of Rotation 1.

Axis of Rotation .

Axis of Rotation .

TwoTwo-Lane Highway Superelevation Profile Centerline Rotation .

Normal Crown .

Tangent Runout/Crown Runoff Horizontal .

Superelevation Runoff Superelevation = Cross Slope .

Superelevation Achieved .

.

Max Superelevation Rate Nomograph (Discussed Later) .

Max Superelevation Rate Cont d .

Using Superelevation Tables 2. Nomographs 3. Simple Curve Formula .How to Calculate Superelevation 1.

9% Note: Choose Table emax = 0.039 3..04 . e = 0.Superelevation Option 1 Given: VD = 40 mph R = 700 ft.04 (Figure 9) R = 700.178 (from Table 7) First solution is obtained from the superelevation tables. fmax = 0. emax = 0.

Iowa has ramp tables. .

.

Minimum Radius Greenbook p. 145 (186 pdf) Minimum Radius Table .

Superelevation Option 2 Radius 700 feet e = -2.5% 40mph .

.Note: Greenbook contains derivation of equations/graphs.

56% Where: VD = design speed R = radius e = superelevation rate fmax= maximum side friction.fmax (English version) e = (402/15*700) .Superelevation Option 3 Third solution is obtained from the simplified curve formula: e = (VD2/15R) .0256 -2.0. Note: Metric Version e = (VD2/127R) .0.178 = -0.fmax (metric version). .152 .178 = 0.

Superelevation Transition Superelevation transition is the length required to rotate the cross slope of a highway from a normal crowned slope to a fully superelevated cross slope. .

Transition Placement WisDOT practice is to place the tangent runout and approximately two-thirds of the length of runoff on the tangent approach and one-third of the length of runoff on the curve. .

33 Where: PC = Point of Curvature L = Length of Runoff X = Length of Tangent Runout NC = Normal Crown of 2% .67 . 40mph design speed) X = L * NC/ e = 115 * .02/.115 = Station 868+08.2/3L .00 + 38.X = 870+00.02 = 115ft Theoretical point of normal crown PC .76.33 = Station 870+38.00 .00 L = 115 ft. Given: PC = Station 870+00.33 Theoretical point of full superelevation PC + 1/3L = 870+00.Calculations Compute the theoretical point of normal crown and the theoretical point of full superelevation. (Table 7.

Length of Runoff (L) .

Length of Runoff (L) The adjustment factor ( ) is used to adjust for different roadway widths. .

.

Length of Runoff (L) Greenbook p. 171 (pdf 212) .

Tangent Runout Lt or X .

Tangent Runout Lt or X .

Tangent Runout Lt or X .

Tangent Runout Lt or X .

Vertical Alignment http://www.com/highways/sr_23.scvresources.htm .

edu/archives/cbximages/log0306/att-0011/01-CoolRide. safety.ucdavis. and pleasing appearance.ucdavis. Design vertical curves to provide adequate sight distance. http://listproc.edu/archives/cbximages/log0306/att-0011/01http://listproc.jpg .The highway vertical alignment consists of tangents or grades and vertical curves. comfortable driving. good drainage.

there may be situations where it is necessary. .No Vertical Curves? Although grade changes without a vertical curve are discouraged. Some rounding of the deflection point is anticipated during construction.

Max % Grade By Functional Class .

use K > 167 .Vertical Curves Vertical curves are generally identified by their K values. K K is the rate of curvature and is defined as the length of the vertical curve divided by the algebraic difference in grade Note: For Drainage.

Question: Is there more on Vertical Alignment in the Wisconsin Manual? 2A-1 p. 235 (276 pdf) .

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