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By -
Pooja Sinha
Kaushalya Bakde

integrated. Inmon A decision support system (DSS) is a computer program application that analyzes business data and presents it so that users can make business decisions more easily.”—W. time- variant. Data Warehouse “A data warehouse is a subject-oriented. and nonvolatile collection of data in support of management’s decision-making process. A Data Warehouse is used for On-Line-Analytical- Processing: “Class of tools that enables the user to gain insight into data through interactive access to a wide variety of possible views of the information” . H.

• Time-variant: All data in the data warehouse is identified with a particular time period. It keeps historical data. . • Non-volatile Data is stable in a data warehouse. More data is added but data is never removed. This enables management to gain a consistent picture of the business. Understanding the term Data Warehousing • Subject Oriented: Data that gives information about a particular subject instead of about a company's ongoing operations. • Integrated: Data that is gathered into the data warehouse from a variety of sources and merged into a coherent whole.

and project timelines. training. . databases. • A data warehouse for decision support is often taking data from various platforms. • A data warehouse is a read-only analytical database used for a decision support system operation. and files as source data. Data Warehouse for Decision Support • A data base is a collection of data organized by a database management system. deliverables. • The use of advanced tools and specialized technologies may be necessary in the development of decision support systems. which affects tasks.

g. ROLAP Operational etc. MOLAP Semistructured OLAP Sources Data serve Warehouse extract Query/Reporting transform serve load refresh e.. Decision Support System in datawarehouse Information Sources Data Warehouse OLAP Servers Clients Server (Tier 2) (Tier 3) (Tier 1) e.. Data Mining DB’s serve Data Marts .g.

. Characteristics Of DSS •DSS should give well structured information. •DSS attempts to combine the use of models or analytic techniques with traditional data access and retrieval functions •DSS specifically focuses on features which make them easy to use by non computer people in an interactive mode •DSS emphasizes flexibility and adaptability to accommodate changes in the environment and the decision making approach of the user.

Application Area .

The functionality of an OLAP tool is purely based on the existing / current data. time-series data manipulation of an enterprise’s internal / some times external data is emphasized by DSS. is capable of providing highest level of functionality and support for decision which is linked for analyzing large collections of historical data. helps in taking decisions for top executive professionals. The manipulation is done by tailor made tools that are task specific and operators and general tools for providing additional functionality. Online Analytical Processing. Data accessing. OLAP and DSS OLAP. . DSS. Decision Support System.

• OLAP data is stored in multidimensional databases. . Introduction to OLAP • OLAP(Online Analytical Processing )is computer processing that enables user to easily & selectively extract & view data from different points of view. • Present in Tier II in Data Warehouse architecture.

Data warehouse for On Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) features • Complex queries that access millions of records. . • Contains historical data for analysis. • Navigation in & out of details(drill down & roll up. • Database size : 100 GB -TB • Fast response time for interactive queries. • Ability to perform complicate calculations. • Provides summarized and multidimensional view of data. slice & dice or rotation).

Hybrid OLAP is a combination of both ROLAP and MOLAP.Relational OLAP(ROLAP) :. . 3. 2.dimensional array rather than relational database.  Data is stored in tables in relational database or extended-relational database. Multidimensional OLAP(MOLAP) :-  It stores data in an optimized multi.  They use RDBMs to manage the warehouse data. The aggregations are stored separately in MOLAP store. Hybrid OLAP(HOLAP) :.  Fast indexing to pre-computed aggregations. Types Of OLAP Servers 1.  HOLAP servers allow to store large data volumes of detailed information. It offers higher scalability of ROLAP and faster computation of MOLAP.ROLAP servers are placed between relational back-end server and client front-end tools.

The list of OLAP operations: • Roll-up • Drill-down • Slice and dice • Pivot (rotate) .

E. Common OLAP Operations 1. When roll-up is performed. . Given total sales by city. we can roll-up to get sales by state or by country.g. one or more dimensions from the data cube are removed.Roll-up: Move up the hierarchy  By dimension reduction.

OLAP Operations 2. E.. . can drill-down to get total sales by city.Drill-down: Move down the hierarchy By introducing a new dimension Lowest level can be the detail records (drill- through) It navigates the data from less detailed data to highly detailed data.g. Given total sales by state.

.  The slice operation selects one particular dimension from a given cube  Dice selects two or more dimensions from a given cube and provides a new sub-cube. The user can view the data from many angles. Contd.. Slice & Dice :. customers store customer = “Smith” . 3.Select and Project on one or more dimensions.

Contd.. Pivot(Rotate):-  Changing the dimensions..  It rotates the data axes in view in order to provide an alternative presentation of data . 4.

. Applications Of OLAP Business reporting for sales & Marketing Management reporting Financial Service industry (insurance. banks. etc).