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Dynamics

8.01

W09D2

10.4, 11.1-11.3;

Announcements

10.2, 10.5-10.6 ; 11.1-11.3

Rigid Bodies

Rigid body: An extended object in which the

distance between any two points in the object is

constant in time. Examples: sphere, disk

represent forces):

and rotate

Main Idea: Fixed Axis Rotation of

Rigid Body

Torque produces angular acceleration about center

of mass

cm

total

Icm cm

Recall: Fixed Axis Rotation

Kinematics

Angle variable

Angular velocity r

z k (d / dt)k

Angular acceleration r

zk (d 2 / dt 2 )k

Mass element

mi

Radius of orbit

r ,i

i N

I S mi (r,i )2

Moment of inertia

i1

dm(r )2

body

Parallel Axis Theorem

I S Md 2 I cm

Torque as a Vector

Force FP exerted at a point P on a rigid body.

Vector rS ,P from a point S to the point P.

S rS ,P FP

Summary: Cross Product

Magnitude: equal to the area of the parallelogram defined by

the two vectors

r r r r r r r r

A B A B sin A B sin A sin B (0 )

Direction: determined by

the Right-Hand-Rule

Torque: Magnitude and Direction

Magnitude of torque about a point S due to force

acting at point P

S rF rF sin

r

where F is the magnitude of the force FP .

formedFPby rSand ,P

.Determined by the

Right-Hand-rule.

Properties of Cross Products

A B B A

c( A B) A cB cA B

( A B) C A C B C

Cross Product of Unit Vectors

i j | i || j | sin 2 1

i i | i || j | sin(0) 0

i j k

i i 0

j k

i j j 0

i j k

k k 0

Components of Cross

Product

A Axi Ayj Az k

, B B i B j B k

x y z

A B ( Ay Bz Az By )i ( Az Bx Ax Bz )j ( Ax By Ay Bx )k

i j k

Ax Ay Az

Bx By Bz

Concept Question: Torque

r r

Consider two vectors r xi with x > 0 and F F i F k

r r x z

with Fx > 0 and Fz > 0 . The cross product r F

points in the

1) + x-direction

2) -x-direction

3) +y-direction

4) -y-direction

5) +z-direction

6) -z-direction

7) None of the above directions

Concept Question: Magnitude of

Torque

In the figure, a force of magnitude F is applied

to one end of a lever of length L. What is the

magnitude of the torque about the point S?

1.FL sin

2.FL cos

3.FL tan

4.None of the above

Torque due to Uniform

Gravitational Force

The total torque on a rigid body due to the

gravitational force can be determined by placing

all the gravitational force at the center-of-mass

of the object.

N N N

S,grav rS ,i Fgrav,i rS ,i mi g mi rS ,i g

i 1 i 1 i 1

1 N

totat

m

i 1

mi S ,i

r

m totat

g

RS,cm m totat g

Fixed Axis Rotational

Dynamics

Recall: Rotational Kinematics

Radius of orbit r ,i

2

vtan,i

Radial Acceleration arad,i r,i 2

r,i

Dynamics: Newtons Second Law

and Torque about S

Tangential force on mass element

produces torque

F F m a

tan,i tan,i i tan,i

Ftan,i mi r,i

Torque about S

S ,i r,i Ftan,i

z-component of torque about S

Torque, Moment of Inertia and

Angular Acceleration

Component of the total torque about an

axis passing through S is the sum over

all elements

i N i N

z,S

total

( z,S )1 ( z,S )2 ( z,S )i mi (r,i )2 z

i1 i1

axis passing through S :

i N

I S mi (r,i )2

i1

Summary: z,S

total

I S z

Concept Question: Chrome

Inertial Wheel

A fixed torque is applied to

the shaft of the chrome

inertial wheel. If the four

weights on the arms are slid

out, the component of the

angular acceleration along

the shaft direction will

1) increase.

2) decrease.

Worked Example:

Moment of Inertia Wheel

to a string which is wound around

a disc of radius Rd. The object is

released and takes a time t to fall

a distance s. What is the moment

of inertia of the disc?

Analysis: Measuring Moment of

Inertia

force equations:

F T mp g 0

mg T ma

Rotational equation: RdT I cm

Constraint: a Rd

g

Solve for moment of inertia: I cm mRd ( 1)

2

a

2

2s 2 gt

Time to travel distance s: a 2 I cm mRd ( 1)

t 2s

Demo: Moment of Inertia Wheel

Measuring the moment of inertia.

1

Theoretical result: I cm md Rd 2

2

Problem Solving Strategy:

Two Dimensional Rotation

Step 1: Draw free body force diagrams for each object and indicate the

point of application of each force

mass)

rotational angle.

Step 4: Apply Newtons Second Law and Torque Law to obtain equations

any linear accelerations.

Rotor Moment of Inertia

Table Problem: Moment of Inertia

Wheel

A steel washer is mounted on a cylindrical

rotor . The inner radius of the washer is R.

A massless string, with an object of mass m

attached to the other end, is wrapped

around the side of the rotor and passes

over a massless pulley. Assume that there

is a constant frictional torque about the axis

of the rotor. The object is released and falls.

We choose coordinates such that as the

mass falls, the rotor undergoes an angular

acceleration with a positive component 1 >

0. After the string detaches from the rotor,

the rotor coasts to a stop with a component

of angular acceleration 2 < 0. Let g denote

the gravitational constant.

assembly (including the washer) about the

rotation axis?

Torque and Static Equilibrium

Conditions for Static Equilibrium

(1) Translational equilibrium: the sum of the forces

acting on the rigid body is zero.

Ftotal F1 F2 ... 0

torques about any point S in a rigid body is zero.

total

S S ,1 S ,2 ... 0

Concept Question: Tipping

A box, with its center-of-

mass off-center as

indicated by the dot, is

placed on an inclined

plane. In which of the four

orientations shown, if any,

does the box tip over?

Problem Solving Strategy: Static

Equilibrium

Force:

1. Identify System and draw all forces and where they act on Free Body

Force Diagram

2. Write down equations for static equilibrium of the forces: sum of forces

is zero

Torque:

1. Choose point to analyze the torque about.

3. Calculate torque about that point for each force. (Note sign of torque.)

sum of torques is zero

Table Problem: Standing on a

Hill

A person is standing on a hill that is sloped at an

angle with respect to the horizontal. The persons

legs are separated by a distance d, with one foot

uphill and one downhill. The center of mass of the

person is at a distance h above the ground,

perpendicular to the hillside, midway between the

persons feet. Assume that the coefficient of static

friction between the persons feet and the hill is

sufficiently large that the person will not slip.

each foot?

normal force on the upper foot is just zero? (This is

the instant when the person starts to rotate and fall

over.)

Rotational Work

Tangential force

Ftan,i Ftan,i

Displacement vector

rS ,i r,i

Wi Ftan,i rS ,i Ftan,i r,i r,i Ftan,i

Rotational Work

Newtons Second Law

Ftan,i mi atan,i

Tangential acceleration atan,i r,i

2

W mi r ,i dm(rS , ) I S

2

i body

Rotational Work

Torque about S S IS

f f

0 0

Rotational Work-Kinetic

Energy Theorem

Infinitesimal rotational work

d d

dWrot I S d I S d I S d I S d

dt dt

Integrate rotational work

f f

1 1

Wrot dWrot I S d I S f I S 02

2

0 0

2 2

1 1

Wrot I S f I S 02 K rot, f K rot ,0 K rot

2

2 2

Rotational Power

Rotational power is the time rate of doing

rotational work

dWrot

Prot

dt

Product of the applied torque with the

angular velocity

dWrot d

Prot S S

dt dt

Table Problem: Change in

Rotational Energy and Work

inertia Ir is slowing down during the

interval [t1, t2] according to

(t)= (t1)- t,

where = (t1)/t2 . Use work energy

techniques to find the frictional

torque acting on the rotor.

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