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Towards Sustainable Cities

Lecture 2
Post 2010: The Smart City
Smart Growth:
-compact, transit-oriented, walk to work, bicycle
friendly land use
-neighborhood schools
-mixed use development
-public transport
-IT enabled governance
12th Five Year Plan, Planning Commission, Report of the Working
Group on Urban Strategic Planning, Oct. 2011
Ambition and Roadmap in India
Current government plans to build 100 smart cities.
Budget 2014 set aside 7000 crores for initial
groundwork.
Launched in 2015 as Smart Cities Mission. Duration
from FY 2015-16 to FY 2019-20.
Central government will provide Rs. 48,000 crores
over 5 years or around Rs 100 crore per city per year
Objective of Smart Cities Mission
(Ministry of Urban Development)
the objective is to promote cities that
provide core infrastructure and give a decent
quality of life to its citizens, a clean and
sustainable environment and application of
Smart Solutions. The focus is on sustainable
and inclusive development and the idea is to
look at compact areas, create a replicable
model which will act like a light house to other
aspiring cities.
Core infrastructure
i. adequate water supply,
ii. assured electricity supply,
iii. sanitation, including solid waste management,
iv. efficient urban mobility and public transport,
v. affordable housing, especially for the poor,
vi. robust IT connectivity and digitalization,
vii. good governance, especially e-Governance and citizen
participation,
viii. sustainable environment,
ix. safety and security of citizens, particularly women, children and
the elderly,
x. health and education.
Features of the Mission
Coverage: every State and UT will get at least one smart city (36).
Balance on the basis of urban population and number of statutory
towns: UP (13), TN (12), Maharashtra (10), WB (4)
Strategy: type of area-based development to be followed:
-retrofitting; existing built-up area to be made smart; size
of area to be more than 500 acres; citizen consultation
- or redevelopment; replacement of existing built up area
with new layout, size of area to be above 50 acres; citizen
consultation
- or greenfield development; vacant area; above 250 acres
- and pan-city development; selected smart solution to one
city-wide infrastructure
Selection through city challenge
2 stage process:
1. Shortlisting of cities by states
Conditions already achieved by the cities/towns in terms of certain
criteria will be used to rank them.
The criteria cover existing service levels, institutional systems/
capacities, extent of self-financing, past track record on projects
completed and reforms. Highest scoring cities of the state will be sent
by the state/UT to the MoUD.
2. Selected cities provide a Smart cities proposal with model chosen,
consultations with stakeholders, revenue model. Evaluation by a
national and international panel of experts. Winners announced.
Those refused can try again.
Implementation: via SPV (Special
Purpose Vehicle)
Each smart city will have a SPV headed by a full time CEO and
have nominees of Central Government, State Government
and ULB on its Board.
The SPV will be a limited company incorporated under the
Companies Act, 2013 and in which the State/UT and the ULB
will be the promoters having 50:50 equity shareholding.
The private sector or financial institutions could be considered
for taking equity stake in the SPV, provided the shareholding
pattern of 50:50 of the State/UT and the ULB is maintained
and the State/UT and the ULB together have majority
shareholding and control of the SPV.
Financing
Central govt. to provide Rs. 48,000 crores over five years. An
equal amount, on a matching basis, will have to be
contributed by the State/ULB; nearly one lakh crores will be
available
The GOI funds and the matching contribution by the
States/ULB will meet only a part of the project cost.
Balance funds are expected to be mobilized from:
-State/ULBs own sources from collection of user fees,
beneficiary charges, land monetization
-borrowing from financial institutions, domestic and
external
-PPPs
The Challenges
A smart city presumes the availability of regular and technologically
advanced infrastructure (for eg: a Smart Grid). A smart grid is a
modernized electrical grid that uses analogue or digital information and
communications technology to gather and act on information, such as
information about the behaviors of suppliers and consumers, in an
automated fashion to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and
sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity.
The newly set up India Smart Grid Task Force (ISGTF) has the mandate to
introduce initiatives for a smart grid in India. Only once these take off can
integration happen effectively.
There is no single formula that can be applied to create new smart zones--
need to craft city specific plans, choose appropriate technology partners
and navigate changes.
Challenges contd.
It is much easier to build smart cities 'ground up' like
Lavasa or Songdo or Masdar but 'retrofitting' existing
cities is an art and poses a serious challenge. It is the
cutting edge. Barcelona and Amsterdam are the
leaders in this.
Technological obsolescence: the design for smart
cities must have a long life span and it must also be
possible to replace specific components when
necessary without causing disruption.
Challenges contd.
Data availability is a must.
-(1) general data on the city
-(2) Built environment data (digital DNA) which is:
data collected by building departments, engineering
departments, land department, planning department, tax department and department
of postal services.
The built environment data of the city is spatial data needed to develop a blue print of
the city and its attributes for virtual representation of the physical city.
One spatial data that is key to smart planning is updated land parcel data. Urban India
is still lagging behind in this aspect as there is so much opacity in urban land issues, eg.
in private land titles.
Social Inclusion and diversity
All socio-economic groups need to be included. As elite enclaves these cities will lack
robustness and energy, eg., ghost suburbs of China made for the very rich.
Transparency of processes
Existing rules and regulations of town building need to be followed.
On-going Smart City projects in India
Kochi Smart City
Lavasa (Maharashtra)
Wave City, Ghaziabad
Gujarat International Finance Tec-City
Smart cities of the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial
Corridor Project
Solar City (Bhubaneswar, Orissa)
DMIC (Delhi-Mumbai Industrial
Corridor), GOI undertaking
Dedicated freight corridor 1483 Kms in length covering 6
states;
Objective: to develop DMIC as a Global Manufacturing and
Trading Hub
In partnership and collaboration with the Government of
Japan
Creation of 3 million jobs 67% of which will be in
manufacturing/processing;
24 industrial nodes and 24 green cities planned along the
corridor;
In the first phase, development of 7 cities to be completed by
2018-2019.
Key sustainable development concepts in the
first 7 smart cities of DMIC corridor
Reduction of commuting needs of the workforce
-polycentric structure with multiple CBDs and
industrial zones
-integration of land uses encouraging mixed uses
-affordable workers housing located near the
industrial zone
Neighborhoods distributed along high access mass transit
corridors
-encouraging cycling and pedestrian modes over cars
Recycling and reuse of water and solid wastes
Smart Planning techniques in older or
preexisting cities
Smart planning techniques can be implemented across specific sectors,
eg., transport, street lighting, water reuse or across smaller parts of the
city.
-BRTS (Bus Rapid Transport System), Ahmedabad
GPS-enabled buses, an integrated control center for traffic management,
use of driver assist and automation technologies with vehicle prioritization
and passenger information systems for operational efficiency.
-Smart traffic management in Mumbai
real-time, adaptive traffic control systems from Schneider Electric to
optimize traffic at 253 crossings. A central traffic management control
centre supervises and reacts to traffic disruptions. Outcome:12%
reduction in average traffic time in the city, along with an 85% reduction in
energy usage from the citys traffic lights.
Sustainable land management and
infrastructure upgradation in older cities
Attempts to decentralize economic activities via new business
centers and thus to reduce commuting date back to the
1970s eg., creation of Navi Mumbai to reduce N-S commuting
in Mumbai and congestion in the island.
Opening the old core through underground mass transit
metro in Kolkata, Delhi.
Planning for green redevelopment--turning an environment
liability into an asset by recycling of land in old uses for
green/sustainable uses.
Eg, Cheonggyecheon river, in downtown Seoul
Green planning at the micro level--street level/neighborhood
level action
The Backward Loop: The role of Waste

Waste in all forms (solid, liquid, gas) has been one of


the biggest markers of the last two and a half
centuries;

Global climate change has been accelerated by the


presence of waste;

The sustainability of the earth as a habitat for living


beings will depend on how we manage this waste.
Wastes are altering the physical composition of the lithosphere:
Rocks made of Plastic found on Hawaiian beach 4, June 2014

Formation of plastiglomerate
Waste Management: Key to urban
sustainability
Proper waste management can result in closed loop
systems of natural resource use
Better health
Availability of resources
Can be of enormous benefit to agriculture
Can create wealth and jobsbig role for the private
sector
Big role for NGOs, CBOs and individuals
Many types of waste in urban areas
Industrial waste
Hazardous waste
Bio-medical waste*
Municipal solid waste*
E-waste*

*Urban local bodies are responsible

Proper management involves:


-collection
-transport
-processing and treatment
-scientific disposal
Waste hierarchy
Waste hierarchy refers to 3 Rs
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
Liquid and solid wastes in India
Liquid 1947 1997 2016 2030
Household 5 billion 30 billion
litres/day litres/day
Industrial 70 billion 3000 bllion
litres/day litres/day
Solid
Municipal solid 6 million metric 48 million 62 million 165 million
wastes tons /yr metric tons/yr metric tons/yr metric tons/yr
Industrial 102 million
metric tons/yr
Projected growth in Municipal Solid Waste
(MSW)
According to the CPCB, the quantity of
municipal solid waste is projected to increase
from 48 million metric tons in 1997 to 260
million metric tons/yr by 2047, requiring 1400
sq. kms of new land for disposal and releasing
39 million tons of landfill gas/yr.
Municipal solid waste management in
India
Only about 75-80% of the municipal waste
gets collected.
Out of this only 22-28% is processed and
treated;
The rest is dumped in dump yards (31 million
tonnes a year)
Municipal solid waste in India contd.
Per capita waste generation in urban India varies from
200 gms to 600 gms a day increasing at 1.33% annually.
Goal should be to reuse as much of the waste as
possible;
Proper sorting and processing of MSW enable reusing of
the waste and can greatly reduce the quantities to be
disposed;
Internationally, waste segregation at the source/by the
generator has been the first step to successful MSW
reuse.
Mixed waste has been the practice in
India
Despite the MSW Management and Handling Rules,
2000;
Waste segregation at source has been difficult to
implement;
Informal sector rag pickers collect whatever they
consider of value from vats and waste dumps;
Volume of waste entering landfills does not reduce;
Compost made of mixed waste has lower nutrients
and can contain hazardous leachates.
Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016

Rules now applicable beyond municipal areas


to the entire urban area/agglomeration and
industrial areas;
Generators should segregate waste into:
-Wet (biodegradable)
-Dry (plastic, paper, metal, wood, glass etc)
-Domestic hazardous waste (diapers, empty
containers of cleaning agents etc. and handover
segregated wastes to waste collectors
New Rules contd.

Integration of waste pickers/ragpickers and waste


dealers/kabadiwalas in the formal system by state
governments, self help groups or any other group;
New townships and group housing societies should develop
in-house waste handling and processing arrangements for bio-
degradable waste;
Developers of SEZs, industrial estates. Industrial parks to
earmark at least 5% of the total plot area for recycling activity;
Brand owners who sell or market their products in non-
biodegradable material should put in place a system to
collect back the packaging waste.
Proper management will yield the
untapped potential of solid waste
According to a Report of the Task force of the
Planning Commission, this amounts to:

439 MW of power from 32,890 TPD (tons per day) of


combustible wastes including Refuse Derived Fuel
(RDF)
1.3 million cubic metres of biogas per day or 72 MW
of electricity from biogas
5.4 million metric tons of compost annually
Successful cases: Pammal & Pune
Community effort: with either the community segregating the
waste (Pune city) or giving this task to a self help group
(Pammal, TN).
Support from local companies/institutions: Sankara Eye
Hospital gave land to Pammals self help group; Pepsico gave
Rs 20 lakhs for infrastructure and operating expenses
Support from local government: Pune Municipal Corporation
(PMC) promoted the formation of a co-operative of waste
pickers and used it for waste collection.
Early start: local leadership in MSW management-Pammal
(1993) and Pune (1993).
Pune Municipal Corporations
achievements
As of June 1, 2010, Pune Municipal Corporation has stopped
open dumping and all waste generated in the city is
processed scientifically.
The city has a collection efficiency of 80-90% of which 45% is
segregated;
Separate vehicles for the collection of wet waste;
300-350 tpd of wet waste go to 17 biomethanation cum
power plants: 4 crores earnings
Unsegregated waste : used to produce refuse derived fuel
(1000 tonnes) and syngas (700 tonnes)
Only 20% of total waste goes to the land fill.
Pune contd.
Co-operative of rag pickers collects and recycles 600
tonnes of solid waste a day;
Housing societies recycle 180-200 tonnes in spaces
provided within their own premises.
The Pune Municipal Corporation has passed
legislation making it mandatory on all new large
housing complexes to make provisions for
composting their own organic wastes.
E waste
Waste electrical and electronic equipment--A relatively
new kind of waste.
e-waste has become more of a problem than all other
wastes
-significant health and environment hazards. Pollutants or
toxins in e-waste are typically concentrated in circuit
boards, batteries, plastics, and LCDs (liquid crystal displays).
10% annual growth in India which is one of the highest in the
world.
Rapid growth of e-waste in India
In 2009, the Electronics Industry Association of India
(ELCINA) had estimated the total e-waste generation
in India at 4.34 lakh tonnes . The CPCB has estimated
that it will exceed the 8 lakh tonnes or 0.8 MT mark
by 2012.
There are 10 States that contribute to 70 per cent of
it.
Official data: 15 lakh tonnes of e-waste in 2016 (PIB,
GoI, 05-04-2016)
E-Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2011

This regulation came into effect in May 2012.


It clearly states:
-Producer shall be responsible for the collection of e-waste
generated from the end of life of their products in line with
the principle of Extended Producer Responsibility and to
ensure that such e-wastes are channelized to registered
dismantler or recycler.
-Producer shall be responsible for setting up collection centers
or take back systems either individually or collectively.
No fines or other action for non-compliance has been written
into the rules .
Responsibility of the consumer
To return the product at the stipulated
collection centre.
Are consumers in India returning the product?
What could influence return intention of
consumers?
Responsibility of urban local bodies
To ensure that e-waste if found to be mixed with
municipal solid waste is properly segregated,
collected and channelized to either authorized
collection center or dismantler or recycler;
To ensure that e-waste pertaining to orphan
products is collected and channelized to either
authorized collection center or dismantler or
recycler.
Private efforts to collect e-waste
In high income residential complexes-
residents can drop e-waste in designated
containers;
Private buyers of e-waste