CHAPTER 8

Labor and Unions
SECTION 1: The U.S. Labor Force SECTION 2: The Growth of Labor Unions SECTION 3: Unions and Management

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SECTION 1

The U.S. Labor Force

Objectives:
 What factors affect workers entering the labor force?  How has the U.S. labor force changed over time?  How does the U.S. government affect labor?

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SECTION 1

The U.S. Labor Force

Factors affecting workers entering the labor force:
 wages  skills  working conditions  location  intrinsic rewards  market trends
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SECTION 1

The U.S. Labor Force

Changes in the U.S. labor force:
 more capital-intensive  more gender-balanced  better educated

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SECTION 1

The U.S. Labor Force

Ways the U.S. government affects labor:
 passing antidiscrimination laws  passing minimum-wage laws

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SECTION 2

The U.S. Labor Force

Objectives:
 What is the history of the labor movement in the United States?  How are labor unions organized?  What are the main challenges facing unions today?  How have government attitudes toward labor unions changed?
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SECTION 2

The U.S. Labor Force

History of the U.S. labor movement:
 mid- and late 1880s—formation of craft and industrial unions, such as the Knights of Labor, to battle poor working conditions, low wages, and unfair length of work days  1886— beginning of the modern period of the labor movement and the organization of the American Federation of Labor
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SECTION 2

The U.S. Labor Force

History of the U.S. labor movement: (continued)
 1900—Knights of Labor no longer a significant force  1920s—internal struggles within labor unions and antiunion sentiment emerged  1930s—organization of Congress of Industrial Organizations to represent skilled and unskilled workers
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SECTION 2

The U.S. Labor Force

Organization of labor unions:
 local unions—made up of people working for a particular company or in a particular area  national unions—composed of local unions from around the country  independent unions—unaffiliated with national unions
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SECTION 2

The U.S. Labor Force

Challenges facing unions:
 employer opposition  changes in employment patterns  negative public opinion

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SECTION 2

The U.S. Labor Force

Changes in government attitudes toward labor unions:
 1800s—favored business interests over labor unions  early 1900s—favored labor unions and passed legislation protecting workers’ rights  since 1940s—has favored management and passed laws limiting labor union power
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SECTION 3

Unions and Management

Objectives:
 What major issues are discussed in labor contract negotiations?  How do unions and management reach a contract agreement?  What negotiation tactics do unions and management use?
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SECTION 3

Unions and Management

Major issues discussed in labor contract negotiations:
 wages and fringe benefits  working conditions  job security  union security  grievance procedures
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SECTION 3

Unions and Management

Methods unions and management use to reach a contract agreement:
 collective bargaining  mediation  arbitration

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SECTION 3

Unions and Management

Negotiation tactics
 Unions:
 picketing  boycotting  coordinated campaigning

 Management:
 hiring replacement workers  using lock-outs  requesting injunctions
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CHAPTER 8

Wrap-Up
1. Explain how supply and demand affect the labor force. 2. How has the composition of the U.S. labor force changed since the 1800s? 3. Why did workers in the 1800s and early 1900s begin to organize? 4. Describe how government attitudes toward labor unions have changed over time.

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CHAPTER 8

Wrap-Up
5. What major issues generally are addressed during labor-contract negotiations? 6. What tactics might a labor union use during contract negotiations? What tactics might management use?

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