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Motivation is the process that accounts for an individuals

intensity, direction, and persistence of effort towards the
attainment of a goal.
Key Elements:
Intensity: Severity of Efforts
Direction: Focus/Orientation
Persistence: Sustainability
Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve
their goal
Going Beyond the Fringe in Benefits: Especially Creative Reward Practices

Company Reward
Apple Computer Stock purchase options

Publix Super Markets Partial ownership in the company

Opportunity to help train new employees
Advanta Corporation

Westin Hotels
Free meals while on the job

ICICI Bank Subsidized Home loan and Canteen facility

Readers Digest Fridays off during the month of May

Going Beyond the Fringe in Benefits: Especially Creative Reward Practices

Company Reward
ITC Limited Pension scheme for employees

Amex Interest free car loan and furniture loan

Paid Paid holidays for employees

Access to camping facilities and equipment

Indigo Airlines Free airline travel for employees and their families
Surat based Jeweler Diwali bonus to his 1200 employees (Cars, flats
and Jewelery)
Need Hierarchy Theory



Esteem needs

Social needs

Safety needs

Physiological needs
Assumptions of Maslows Hierarchy

Movement Up the Pyramid

Individuals cannot move to the next higher level until
all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied.
therefore must Maslow Application
move up the A homeless person
hierarchy in order. will not be motivated to
Theory X Theory Y By Douglas McGregor

Little Ambition
Theory X
Dislike Work
Avoid Responsibility


Theory Y
Enjoy Work

Accept Responsibility
Theory X
Inherently dislike work and will try to avoid it
They avoid responsibilities
Seek formal direction
Place security above all other work-related factors
Display little ambition
They must be coerced, controlled, or threatened to achieve
Theory Y

View work as being as natural as rest or play
Committed to their objectives
The individual can learn to accept, even seek,
Individuals have innovative decision-making skills
Individuals will exercise self-direction and self-control
Proposals of Mc Gregor

Participative decision making

Responsible and challenging tasks
Good group relations
Maximize motivation
Motivation-Hygiene Theory

Frederick Herzberg asked workers to describe situations in which

they felt either good or bad about their jobs
Theory asserts that
Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction - motivating
factors (challenging work, recognition for one's achievement,
responsibility, opportunity to do something meaningful, and
involvement in decision making)

Extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction - hygiene

factors (status, job security, salary, fringe benefits, work
conditions, good pay, and vacations).
Contrasting Views of Satisfaction
and Dissatisfaction

Presence Absence
Factors characterizing events
on the job that led to extreme
job dissatisfaction

Factors characterizing events

on the job that led to extreme
job satisfaction

Comparison of
Satisfiers and
Motivation-Hygiene Theory

Job satisfaction factors are distinct from job dissatisfaction


Managers who eliminate job dissatisfaction factors may not

necessarily motivate
When hygiene factors are adequate, people will not be
dissatisfied; Neither they will be satisfied

To motivate people - emphasize intrinsically rewarding factors

ERG Theory by Clayton Alderfer

There are three groups of core needs: existence, relatedness, and growth

Existence: Basic material existence requirements. Physiological + safety needs of

Maslows Hierarchy

Relatedness: The desire for maintaining important interpersonal relationships.

Social + External factor of Esteem need ( status, recognition, and attention)

Growth: An intrinsic desire for personal development.

Intrinsic component of esteem (Self-respect, autonomy, achievement) + Self-
ERG Theory by Clayton Alderfer

Relationships between Alderfer's ERG theory concepts

There are three relationships among the different categories in Alderfer's ERG theory:

Moving up to higher-level needs based on satisfied needs.

If a higher level need remains unfulfilled, a person may regress to lower level needs that
appear easier to satisfy.

Iteratively strengthening a current level of satisfied needs.
ERG Theory demonstrates

1. ERG theory represents a more valid version of Moslows need

hierarchy model

2. On a work level, managers must recognize his employees' multiple

simultaneous needs. Focusing exclusively on one need at a time
will not motivate your people. More than one need may be operative
at the same time
3. If the fulfilment of a higher-level need is subdued, there is an
increase in desire for satisfying a lower-level need

4. The frustration-regression principle impacts workplace motivation.

For example, if growth opportunities are not provided to employees,
they may regress to relatedness needs, and socialize more with co-
Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational
Behaviour, 9th Edition, Prentice-Hall India
Griffin R.W, Moorhead G. (2014),
Organizational Behavior: Managing
People and Organizations, New Delhi:
Cengage Learning