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Avoiding Plagiarism

in Research
Prof. Dr. Khalid Mahmood
Department of Library and Information Science
University of the Punjab

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Plagiarism Definition

Taking and using the thoughts, writings,


and inventions of another person as one's
own

Using someones ideas without citing or


quoting; thereby, receiving credit for
someone elses intellectual effort

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How serious is the problem?
A study of almost 4,500 students at 25 schools,
suggests cheating is . . . a significant problem in
high school - 74% of the respondents admitted to
one or more instances of serious test cheating
and 72% admitted to serious cheating on
written assignments. Over half of the
students admitted they have engaged in
some level of plagiarism on written
assignments using the Internet.
Based on the research of Donald L. McCabe, Rutgers University
Source: CIA Research. Center for Academic Integrity, Duke University,
2003.

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Why is this a problem?
For the student
failure to achieve academic learning outcomes
treated as academic misconduct

For the institution


threat to reputation and value of degrees
Quality assurance, regulations, and legislative
context

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Forms of plagiarism

Copying from a single source

Copying from several sources

Paraphrasing

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How to avoid plagiarism
Use quotes for

Information that comes directly from any


source

Words, spoken or written, that you use directly


from another person

Make sure you document the source

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How to avoid plagiarism
Paraphrase

Write the information in your own words, but


do not change its meaning or intention

Because you are using someone elses idea,


always mention the source even if you use
your own words

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Common knowledge
Any information, fact, or statement that is
widespread and known by a variety of people is
considered common knowledge
John Adams was the second president of USA
The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7,
1941

There is no need to give credit to information that


is of common knowledge

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When should I cite?

Is it your idea? Yes

NO

Is it common knowledge? Do not cite

No

Cite it!!
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When in doubt, cite.

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Plagiarism detection software

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Penalties for teachers, researchers and staff
Dismissal from service
Demotion to the next lower grade
Warning
Freezing of research grants
Promotions/annual increments of the offender may be
stopped
University may debar the offender from sponsorship of
research funding, travel grant, supervision of Ph.D.
students, scholarship, fellowship or any other funded
program
Offender may be Black Listed and may NOT be eligible for
employment in any academic / research organization
Notification of Black Listing of the author may be
published in the print media or may be publicized on
different websites
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Penalties for students
Expelled/ rusticated from the University and from joining
any institution of Higher Education in Pakistan
Relegated to a lower class
Given a failure grade in the subject
Fined an amount
Given a written warning if the offence is minor and is
committed for the first time
Degree may be withdrawn
Notification of plagiarism by the author may be published in
the print media or may be publicized on different websites
University may debar the offender from sponsorship of
research funding, travel grant, scholarship, fellowship or
any other funded program

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