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Jurusan Teknik Perencanaan

Wilayah dan Kota

Prasarana Wilayah dan Kota

PS 4221 Nature of Transport Services
Semester IV Part 1 its enabling components
3 sks
Pengampu :
Iwan Aminto Ardi, S.T.

Reference sources :
Heru Sutomo, Mark Zuidgeest

Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nasional


1. Land use and transport
2. Defining a transport system
3. Its components (internal and external)
4. Reliability and service
5. Networks, capacity and complexity
6. Roads and Transport in URP
Urban areas are transport land use systems
Complex entities with a multitude of functions.
System where locations and spatial accumulation form
land uses.
Urban land use:
Expresses the attributes of the urban space.
Attempts to interpret spatial elements and their interrelations.
This system is highly complex and includes several
Each urban area is part of a sub-system including the
transport system, spatial interactions and land use.
The transport system is topic of this course
Infrastructure Friction of Space Spatial Accumulation
(infrastructure supply) (travel demand)

Transport System Spatial Interactions Land Use

A transport system may be defined as consisting of
the fixed facilities, the flow entities and the
control system that permit people and goods to
overcome the friction of geographical space
efficiently in order to participate in a timely
manner in some desired activity.
Furthermore a transport system:
Is complex, dynamic, and internally interconnected as
well as interconnected with other complex dynamic
systems (e.g., the environment, the economy).
varies in space and time (at different scales for different
Human decision-makers make choices that shape the
transport system.
The physical components of the system that are
fixed in space and constitute the network of links
(roads, rail, pipes) and nodes (intersections,
interchanges, terminals) of the transport system.
Fixed facilities are the realm of civil engineering
Geometric design, which is concerned with the physical
proportioning of the elements of the fixed facilities
Structural design, which is concerned with the strength of
structures to withstand efficiently expected forces
Flow entities are the units that traverse the
fixed facilities. They include:
Vehicles, incl. pedestrians
Container units
Train wagons
Each having generic capabilities such as size,
weight, acceleration, deceleration capabilities
Their specific technological design is the realm
of mechanical and electrical engineers
The control system consists of vehicular control and flow
Vehicular control refers to the technological way in which
individual vehicles are guided on the fixed facilities (manual
or automated).
For manual systems, human factors play a big role, which is
the realm of traffic psychologists
Flow control consists of the means that permit the efficient
and smooth operation of streams of vehicles and the reduction
of conflicts between vehicles.
Signing, marking, traffic control, traffic management, ITS
Transport systems are built to enable people to
undertake their economic, social and cultural
Transport systems should accommodate these
societal activities in an efficient way to satisfy
the need for mobility.
The need for mobility to engage in activities
is travel demand.
Efficiency stands for:
Cost, convenience, environmental quality, protection of
community rights etc.
Transport engineers require inputs from
economists, planners and social scientists.
Permit movement of people, goods & services from point to
point, i.e. provide mobility

To provide accessibility to activities which are distributed over

space and time

To provide mobility and accessibility options that are efficient,

convenient and safe

To encourage the development of socially desirable land use

Transport is an enabler of social and economic activities

Transport is an important social and economic activity in its

own right

Transport is a necessary (but not sufficient) factor for urban

Thescience of safe and efficient movement
of people and goods.
Planning urban transport planning
Design and engineering highway engineering
(railroad, airport, port engineering)
Operations and management traffic engineering
Distribution in space
and time

Travel demand Travel patterns Travellers, freight

travel market equilibrium

Travel supply=
Transport services Modes of transport
Traffic demand

traffic market equilibrium

Traffic supply Traffic services Traffic infrastructure

Three layer transport system description

The challenge of transport system analysis is
to intervene, delicately and deliberately, in
the complex fabric of a society to use
transport effectively, in coordination with
other public and private actions to achieve
the goals of society

(Marvin L Manheim, 1979)

Traffic infrastructure
Highway, street, path
Railroad, waterway
Air corridor
Bus station
Transfer point
Bus stop
Taxi stand
Modes of transport
Rail locomotives
Vehicle characteristics
Degree of automation
Power systems
Control, communications and location
Controller (as in air traffic)
Traffic lights
Sensors (loop detectors)
Advanced technology
User fees
Financial regulation
Entry and exit from market
Provider of:
Vehicle Providers (and their importance in
the global economy)
Infrastructure Builders
Research Community
Insurance Industry
Intra-modal (e.g., other bus companies)
Inter-modal (rail vs. truck)

Between systems
transport/communication system competition
Customers (freight or traveler)
have choices of modes,
departure time, route etc.
They make these choices based
on the level-of-service provided
by competitors.
People/organizations who are not customers
or suppliers but are nonetheless concerned
Environmental community
Neighbors (NIMBY), e.g. of airports
The general public - concerned with quality of
life, national defense/security, economic
development, as enabled by the transport system
Public-Policy Lever Employer
Private-Sector Large-Scale
Investment Infrastructure with
Industrial Base long-term Impact
(e.g., auto and Environmental
shipbuilding Impact -
industries) Sustainable
Economic Systems
Development Energy Issues
Equity Issues
Customers want high-quality service.
They want universal, direct, frequent, and
high-quality service.
Providers are cost-oriented. They are
typically worried about minimizing cost and
want to run an efficient and cost-effective
Level-of-service(LOS) is a complex,
multidimensional concept. The transport provider
needs to understand LOS, as his/her customer
perceives it.
LOS parameters:
Travel Time
Variability in travel time is called service
reliability. In particular systems, service
reliability in travel time can be as important
as average travel time. Railroad and truck
systems for moving freight differ both on a
reliability dimension and on an average
travel time dimension.
Nodes and link network representation

Transport networks are interconnected.

Connections between the links through the other basic network
elements are called nodes, which often represent terminals or
There are usually multiple ways to travel between nodes.
Links are typically guideways, highways, roads, streets, rail lines,
air corridors, etc.
We have links that can take flows, typically of vehicles, in one or
both directions.
Links often have a capacity (e.g., vehicles/hour).
The maximum traffic flow obtainable on a given
roadway using all available lanes as well as the
intersection. It is the link volume beyond which
the travel time is infinite.
link travel time


capacity volume (veh/h)

Hierarchical networks
Arterial streets
Distributor streets
Collector streets
Local streets

Intermodal networks


Service Level


Technology and
System Choice

Functional Design

Key considerations of
geometric and
structural design

Jurusan Teknik Perencanaan
Wilayah dan Kota

Prasarana Wilayah dan Kota

PS 4221
Nature of Transport Services
Semester IV
3 sks
Part 2 interaction of components
Pengampu :
Iwan Aminto Ardi, S.T.

Reference sources :
Heru Sutomo, Mark Zuidgeest

Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nasional


Interaction of transport system components
enables a transport system to function, to
perform in terms of:
Mobility: efficient movement of people and goods
Accessibility: connect people to desired destinations
Safety: reach destinations safely
Environment: protect and enhance environmental
Community: impacts on the physical and social
characteristics of a local community
Implementability: cost, phasing and funding of
But also equity, liveability, affordability etc.
Mobility refers to the ability to make trips
If a facility could move people and goods very
fast then that facility provides very high mobility
Accessibilityrefers to the number of activity
sites connected by the facility, or that desired
destinations can be reached with reasonable
effort or costs
If a facility provides connection to large number
of residences, commercial places and industrial
places then it provides very high accessibility
Mobility and accessibility are inversely related
Better access? But how about the other
Mobility is simply a measure of the agency with which people
choose to move themselves or their goods around. This
involves two components.
1. The performance of the transport system, which is
affected by where the person is, the time of day and the
direction in which they wish to travel.
2. The characteristics of the individual such as whether
s/he has a bicycle or car available, can afford taxi, bus,
or rail fares, is able to walk or use public transport, or
has knowledge of the options available.
The first element is concerned with the effectiveness of the
transport system in connecting spatially separated locations
The second element is concerned with the extent to which a
particular individual or type of person is able to make use of
the transport system.
Accessibility,or the perceived proximity of
desired locational destinations, is heavily
influenced by the transport mode being
used. Accessibility is concerned not with
behaviour but with the opportunity, or
potential, provided by the transport and
land-use system for different types of people
to engage in activities.
of handicapped or other
deprived groups is often ignored.
Accessibility depends on infrastructure and
available and affordable modes of transport
for the movement of people and their loads.
Accessibility therefore depends on physical
proximity and mobility. It may be improved
by greater mobility and/or improved
Transport infrastructure and transport modes
form operational transport systems.
Mobility for men, women, children and goods
depends on the availability, affordability and
efficiency of such transport systems.
(Maunder Et al, nd)
Road traffic safety aims to reduce the harm
(deaths, injuries, and property damage) on the
road system from traffic collisions and includes
the design, construction and regulation of the
roads, the vehicles that use them, human factors
and also the training of drivers and other road-
Improvement of road safety needs to be
balanced with the provision of an effective
efficient transport system.
Components of traffic safety studies:
Road users and human factors
Emergency Medical Services
Safety Management
Transport systems negatively affect the
environment, particularly when not designed
and operated in a properly, i.e. in terms of

Fuel consumption
Air pollution, including GHG
Noise and vibration
Visual intrusion and physical degradation.
1. Road traffic consumes huge amount of energy and mineral resources.
2. Large shares of land are needed to build roads.
3. Surface water run-off pollutes waterways around any major arterial
4. Road traffic constitutes large amounts of carbon dioxide emitted
contributing significantly to air pollution and global warming. Other air
pollutants from road traffic include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide,
particulate matter (fine dust), and volatile organic compounds.
5. Huge numbers of cars, waste oil, and tyres need to be scrapped every
year because of our reliance on road mobility. Many of these items are
toxic, non-recyclable, and slow to biodegrade.
6. Roads split up animals natural habitats and kill wildlife.
7. Road traffic creates a great deal of noise pollution and vibration. This
adds to levels of stress for anyone living or working near main roads.
8. Roads impact negatively on the built environment making cities less
liveable, less sustainable.
9. Many people die in traffic accidents
Community transport meets the needs of
transport for all groups in the community.
These groups include the urban poor, isolated
families, the frail aged, younger people with
disabilities, etc.
Where conventional public transport systems
are not generally viable or appropriate,
community transport provides transport to
disadvantaged people with access to
recreation, shopping, medical care, social
services and social contact.
There are three major categories of
transportation equity.
1. Horizontal equity is concerned with the
distribution of impacts between individuals and
groups considered equal in ability and need.
2. Vertical equity is concerned with the distribution
of impacts between individuals and groups that
differ in abilities and needs, in this case, by income
or social class.
3. Vertical equity with regard to mobility need and
ability is concerned with the distribution of
impacts between individuals and groups that differ
in transportation ability and need, and therefore
the degree to which the transportation system
meets the needs of travelers with special
Transportcontributes to liveability of a city
or region, both positively through its mobility
and accessibility function as well as
negatively, through its (negative) impact on
safety, enviroment, communities etc.
Lifecycle management
Financial sustainability
Cost benefit analysis
To provide an inventory of principal traffic
To explain these parameters and their
To demonstrate survey methods for these
traffic parameters
To relate transport engineering design to
these parameters
at the various scale levels (link, junction,
Cari peraturan pemerintah yang terkait
dengan transportasi, lalu lintas, atau jalan
Jelaskan beberapa definisi berikut : Fungsi
Jalan, Status Jalan, Kelas Jalan, Jalan Arteri,
Jalan Kolektor, Jalan Lokal/Lingkungan.