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Use of RADMS and Avasaram 108

App in Trauma Care
Gitakrishnan Ramadurai
Associate Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
Robert Bosch Center for Data Science and AI
Workshop on
Trauma Care Systems
9th & 10th November 2017. Chennai
TAEI * NTRI * IIT-M
Road Accident Statistics - India

2005 to 60% 17.6% -1% - 42% 9.4%
2016
Road Accident Statistics - India

~37% of ~40% of
total total
Road Accident Statistics - India

~47% are
vulnerable
road users
Road Accident Statistics - India

~46% in 18-35 age group
5% of
population
of India
~6.7 Cr
RADMS
• Introduced in Tamil Nadu in 2008/9
• Very comprehensive database
• Wealth of data
– Quantity is overwhelming (over 7 Lakh records)
– Quality improvements can be achieved
(particularly by reducing fields and options)
Fields in RADMS
No. Table Data included
• Accident ID • Surface type •Road horizontal
• Collision type • Light condition characteristics
• Speed Limit • Weather code •Road narrow
• No. of lanes •Carriageway width •Accident cause
1 General • Junction type •Shoulder width •Police present
• Junction control •Road width •Remedial measure
• Road category •Traffic movement •Footpath
• Central divider •Traffic restriction

• Accident time •No. of Passenger •PIN code
and date casualty. •District code
• Accident severity •No of Pedestrian •Section of law
2 Header
• No. of Vehicles casualty. •Reporting date and
• No. of driver time
casualty.
Fields in RADMS
No. Table Data included
• No. of Vehicles • Vehicle type • Vehicle maneuver
• Registration • Load type • Vehicle
3 Vehicle
Number. • Vehicle defect. movement from
• Skid length. and to.
• Age and Sex • Education level • Driver error type
• No. of drivers • Alcohol • Injury severity
4 Driver
• Driving type consumption. • Injury Nature.
• Injury type • Helmet.
• No. of passengers • Passenger position •Passenger
• Age and Sex. • Helmet occupation
5 Passenger • Injury type and • Education type • Hospitalization
severity • Alcohol delay.
consumption • Injury nature.
Fields in RADMS
No. Table Data included

• No. of pedestrians. • Pedestrian • Students from
• Casualty class position. school
•Age and Sex • Alcohol • Pedestrian
6 Pedestrian
• Injury type, consumption occupation
severity and nature. • Education type • Hospitalization
delay.
• Location type • Latitude • District code
7 Location
• Area code • Longitude • Landmark
Accident data for Tamil Nadu
YEAR Total number of accidents
(RADMS)

2009 62041
2010 62796
2011 62502
2012 68278
2013 66072
2014 64572
2015 69481
2016 (up to July) 41450
Accident data for Tamil Nadu…

Total number of accidents in Tamil Nadu
Total number of accidents

70000
68000
66000
64000
62000
60000
58000
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
year
Accident data for Tamil Nadu…….

100%
90%
80%
Number of accidents

No data
70%
Other Roads
60% Express Highway
50% Village Road
40% Major District Road
30% Other District Road
20% State Highway
10% National Highway
0%
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
YEAR
Type of junction control
100%

90%

80%

70% No control
PERCENTAGE

60% Giveway sign
Stop sign
50%
Flashing signal
40%
Traffic sgnals
30% Police officer
20% Not at junction

10%

0%
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
YEAR

May not be accurate? We know more accidents happen at Junctions
Pedestrian position during accident

100%
Shoulder
Number of accidents

80%
Foot path
60%
Center of the road
40%

20% Traffic Island

0%
Within 50m o
2009 2010
2011 2012 pedetrian crossing
2013 2014
2015 Pedestian crossing
Year

Pedestrian not safe even on footpaths? Or is there inaccuracy in data entry?
Accident data for Tamil Nadu…….
Tamil Nadu - Vehicle Categories Involved in Accidents (2016-Jun
2017)

Others
8%

Unknown
17% 2W
44%

Bus
6%

HGV/LGV
8%

Bicylce Cars
2% 13%
Autorickshaw
2%
108 Call Data – Vehicular Trauma Cases
May 2017
Call Handling Time
14000
Most calls handled within 3 min;
12000
but significant time spent in
10000
obtaining location information
8000

6000

4000

2000

0
0-1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 >6
Base to Scene Time
4500
4000
3500
3000
Base to Scene Time Avg: 12.8 min 2500
2000
1500
1000
Can we reduce further? 500
- App for calling 108 0

- Better location, assignment, routing
1
3
5
7
9
1
3
5
7
9
1
3
5
7
0
0
>3
0-
2-
4-
6-
8-
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-2
-2
-2
-2
-3
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
of ambulances
Most Innovative Ideas
- DTMF for location transmission (no internet)
- SMS for location transmission
- Pilot app integration
- Lock screen widget
- First aid tips
- Nearest hospitals / blood banks
- Visual impaired friendly
- Social network of first responders
- Aadhar Authentication
Avasaram 108
(20K+ downloads in one week)

Developed by Makesh Gopalakrishnan and
team @ Crayon’d
Summary
• Fatal accidents increasing at a high rate
• Tamil Nadu leads in number of accidents and is second in
number of fatalities
• Highways and junctions are major accident locations
• Vulnerable road users constitute ~50% of accidents
• A lite-version of RADMS can improve accuracy of data
collected
• With GPS in all ambulances and better location of scene
from user app – better assignment of ambulances possible
and ~1 min reduction in response possible
• Going forward – better location, repositioning, assignment,
and routing of ambulances using the data that is available