Sensors and Wireless Communication for Medical Care

Anu Bhargava and Michael Zoltowski CERIAS and ECE Department Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907

Presented by Anu Bhargava
This research is supported by CERIAS security center and NSF REU grant of Prof. Arif Ghafoor and Mike Zoltowski.

government/community leaders over wireless network should be secure.  Reliability. pharmacies. malfunctioning. terrorism attacks. consistent/correct and anonymous. hostile setting.  Challenge is to develop sensors that detect and monitor violations in medical care environments before threat to life occurs. or compromised.  Computing nodes and sensors can be malicious. emergency personnel. selfish. reliable. private.Security and Safety  Medical care environments are vulnerable to malicious behavior. Security. Slide 2 . law enforcement agencies.  Collaboration among physicians/nurses. tampering. natural disaster. Accuracy can affect timeliness and precise information for patient monitoring.

battery consumption. Pattern changes result in alerts. position. toxins.Technology and Type of Sensors  Sensors and wireless devices have limited computation.  Neutron-based detectors detect chemical and nuclear materials. communication. mobile sensors are becoming available. bacteria uses chips coated with antibodies that attract a specific biological agent. redundancy. scalability. energy level. failure mode (failed. inexpensive. movement. Byzantine). viruses.  High rate of temporary or lasting failure. degrading. Slide 3 .  Microsensors consist of 8-bit 4-MHz processors.  Research is underway on sensor fusion.  Tiny.  Characteristics of sensors include size. and wireless communication issues. smart dust.  Ion trap mass spectrometer aids in locating fingerprints of proteins to detect toxin or bacteria. topology management.  Bio-sensors to detect Anthrax. and energy.

Research Issues  Smart Antennae Omni-directional antenna has a problem with congestion and eavesdropping. Phase-array can steer a main lobe in any direction. Slide 4 .  Jam Resistant Antennae Two antennae on each device and use polarization in a way to receive signals from one direction. Sectorized has elements that aim in different directions and only one sector is energized with Radio Frequency. and adaptive array). One solution is smart antennae with multiple sub-antennae and switches (sectorized. Channel estimation possible when distinct antennae have different polarization or significant spatial separation. phase array. Adaptive-arrays can form multiple main lobes and steerable nulls in the direction of interferes. but not capable of forming nulls.

o Source of data. Byzantine behavior. o HIPPA regulations for medical data. impersonation. o Suspicion lists. gang attack. o Hierarchy of base stations with multiple keys can be used.  Energy Conservation o Aggregation of data and pattern identification. black list can be created to ignore sensors. o False accusation. o Routers need to be computationally efficient for energy. o Limited access and disclosure.  Denial of Service Attacks and Intruder Identification o Flooding by a malicious host. Slide 5 . use backup controller in the immediate neighborhood.  Privacy and Anonymity o Location of sensor. Fault-tolerant Authentication o If base station fails.

o Identify obstacles for mobile stretchers. narcotics.  Safety and Security of the Hospital o Monitor temperature. abuse. o Protect patients from neglect. tampering. o Monitor visitor clothing to guarantee hygiene and prevention of infections.Sensors in a Patient¶s Environment  Safety and Security in Patient¶s Room o Monitor the entrance and access to a patient¶s room. o Monitor tampering with medicine. air quality. humidity. o Monitor pattern of activity with respect to devices connected to a patient. o Protect against electromagnetic attacks. Slide 6 . power outages. harm. movement of patient outside the safety zone. o Protect access to FDA controlled products. fraud in prescriptions. and special drugs. and discharge of biological agent.

Slide 7 . attacks from jamming devices.  Protect against changes to patient records or treatment plan. disabling messages.  QoS issues for multimedia data  Vulnerabilities of wireless communication protocols such as 802. switching off/crashing computers.11 and bluetooth. Decrypting traffic.  Protect against disabling monitoring devices.Privacy and Security of Network and Computer Systems  Privacy of patient record and identification. flawed software. injection of new traffic.

lost or delayed messages.  Timeliness.  Non-emergency calls to nurses and doctors due to malfunctions. data values. Accuracy. pagers activation.  False fire alarms. ward. Precision. or intrusions.Measures of Safety and Security  Number of incidents per day in patient room. Slide 8 . smoke detectors. failures. or hospital.  Wrong information.

and control information flow. Slide 9 . disrupt or destroy digital devices.  But can be used by terrorists to kill all electronic.Conclusion  Use of sensors can increase safety and security.

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