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What is Emotional Intelligence

Why Does it Matter, Can it be

Developed and How Do You
Assess it?
Emotional Intelligence
Defined MHS 2005

an array of non-cognitive capabilities, competencies and skills that

influence ones ability to succeed in coping with environmental
demands and pressures
Reuven BarOn
the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as
to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional meanings,
and to reflectively regulate emotions in ways that promote emotional
and intellectual growth
Salovey & Mayer
the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for
motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves
and in our relationships
Daniel Goleman
Why Emotional Intelligence?

There is a growing body of research

findings that scientifically
demonstrates that emotional
intelligence predicts how well we
perform at home, school and in the
Reuven Bar-On, Ph.D.
December 16, 2004
Why Focus on Emotional Intelligence in
Higher Education?

It is clear that academic success goes hand in hand with

emotional and physical well-being. College is a fresh start for
many students, but dysfunctional coping styles can cripple
their efforts. Even students who get by or succeed
academically can be at risk if unhealthy behavioral patterns
follow them after college. Promoting emotional health in
students is an investment in the future. It should be part of
the mission of all colleges and universities.

Dr. Richard Kadison, Chief of Mental Health,

Harvard University

Copyright 2005 Multi-Health Systems, Inc.

All Rights Reserved. 4
Specific Issues to Address Emotional
Intelligence in Higher Education
Address issues that connect with student success
Experiencing Stress
Feeling overwhelmed
Not getting along with others
Giving up
Engaging in destructive behaviors

Address General Education Outcomes

Problem Solving
Ethical Behavior
Working in Teams
Having Global Perspectives
Lifelong Learning
Appreciation for Diversity and Diverse Perspectives
From Greater Expectations: A New Vision for Learning
as a National Goes to College (AAC&U 2002)
The Empowered Learner
Communicates effectively

Has the ability to manage change

Works within diverse groups

The Informed Learner

Understands the human imagination, expression, and
the products of many cultures

The Responsible Learner

Has deep understanding of ones self and respect for the
complex identities of others, their histories and their
Identifying skills successful students have
or need to develop
Emotional self-awareness
Reality testing
Problem solving
Stress tolerance
Impulse control
Social responsibility
Interpersonal relationship
What is the BarOn Model?
Emotional Competencies
(BarOn EQ-i)
MHS 2005
SCALES Reality testing
Emotional self-awareness Flexibility
Assertiveness Problem solving
Stress tolerance
SCALES Impulse control
Social responsibility GENERAL MOOD
Interpersonal relationship
The Foundation
Adapted from: The Cannon Emotional Competence Model
Kate Cannon, Author
and Personal &
results in Interpersonal
which Effectiveness
predicts Effective Self-Actualization
Relationships Happiness
is related
Interpersonal Relationships
plus Coping Skills Social Responsibility
Impulse Control Assertiveness
Stress Tolerance

Self Awareness Problem Solving

Self-Awareness Optimism
Reality Testing

Frances Clendenen beBetter Networks, Inc.

Some recent Findings Examining the Impact
of EQ on Student Success
Higher achieving students demonstrated higher Total EQ, Intrapersonal Skills,
Stress Tolerance and Adaptability

Students who are anxious or depressed get lower grades/lower achievement


Students who can delay gratification earn better grades and have an average of
210 more points on their SAT tests

Students who respond to setbacks with hope and resilience vs. anger and
hopelessness achieve higher academic and social success

Low levels of empathy are associated with poor achievement

Resiliency training can improve the resiliency of students

EQ skills can be enhanced in a college transition course

How Does EQ Differ From IQ?
MHS 2005
Focus: developing an Focus: developing ones
understanding of and an cognitive abilities; more
ability to manage emotions academically oriented
Can be enhanced Generally thought to be largely
throughout ones life established at birth and cannot
be enhanced
Recently understood to be an Has been traditionally used to
important predictor of ones predict potential for ones
potential for success success
Fosters understanding and Allows development of needed
management of own emotions knowledge base

Promotes positive relationships Enables development of

technical skills and abilities

Increases self-motivation and Enables conceptual thinking

Skills First-Year (and beyond) that Lead
to Student Success?

What are the skills they need to develop?

Can we identify the skills and teach them?

Can we asses the skills?

Opportunities to teach or assess skills
Orientation groups
Academic Advising
Students on Academic Probation
Service Unit
Office of Students with Disabilities
Judicial Affairs
Campus Activities
Opportunities to develop skills are
Common readings Campus events
Films Current events
Literature Clubs, sports,
Cultural issues organizations
Code of conduct
Gender Student concerns
Identity Drugs and alcohol
Case studies-your Dating
text Making friends
Service Learning Time management
Opportunities to assess skills are limitless
Student Surveys
Focus Groups
Service Learning Evaluation
Reflective Journals
Group Projects
Student writing
Pre and Post Evaluation
Course Exams
Videotape of Performance
Points to consider

Multiple measures embedded

Ongoing Feedback

Build in self, peer and instructor assessment

Emotional Intelligence in a college transition
course-embed and assess in all that we do
Students will understand how emotional
intelligence is connected to college success
Students will identify specific emotional
intelligence traits of successful individuals
Analyze readings and film for character analysis
Students will use their MBTI and BarOn EQ-i results to
describe their strengths and weaknesses
Feedback Sessions

Based on their MBTI and BarOn EQ-I results students will

choose one or two goals and describe how they will
develop them over the semester
Goal Setting Activity

At the end of the semester, students will describe if they

achieved their goals, why or why not, and what impact it
had, if any, on their success during the first year.
End of Semester Meeting
Final Reflective Assignment
Forms of Assessment
Quantitative (number based) scores, percentages

Qualitative (words, art forms) opinions

Direct measure -observing a student, scoring an essay,

journal, analysis or discussion of an event, response to a
film, portfolios

Indirect measure satisfaction and self perception

surveys, focus groups, interviews

Qualitative and quantitative measures can be direct or indirect

Findings Examining the Impact of EQ enhanced FYS
sections of student success at Gallaudet University (Andesen
and Moses 2006)
All first-year students enrolled in FYS (First-Year Seminar) took the BarOn EQ-
i. in Sept. and December 2005.

Half of the students were enrolled en EQ enhanced sections.

Post test results indicated students in the EQ enhanced sections had

significantly higher (p<.05) General Mood.

Two additional EQ factors approached significance: Interpersonal Skills and

Total EQ-i.

While not statistically significant, students in enhanced sections had higher

FYS course grades and semester GPAs.

Students in enhanced sections were less likely to be on academic probation

Student narrative supported the results

EBI First Year Initiative number one mean question The course improved
understanding of the impact of establishing personal goals.
BarOn EQ-I
Traditional vs. Enhanced FYS
Intrapersonal .785
Interpersonal .078
Stress Management .478
Adaptability .702
General Mood .042 *
Total EQ-I .070

Student voices:

Ilooked back at my midterm and I wrote that I

need to look at my impulse control I do
everything at the last minute. In fact I was
doing my midterm at the last minute (sorry). I
also had a hard time saying no my stress
was up. I really thought about it and made
some changes like telling my roommate I didnt
want him to use my car. It was not easy or not
jumping at any chance to go out forgetting about
homework. Well I did it I am not perfect but
my post EQ says my stress is down and it is.
My General Mood is better too. I feel better.
Student voices: (Teaching Assistant)

In the beginning of the semester interpersonal was

one of my lowest scores. It includes empathy, social
responsibility and interpersonal relationships. A
person with low interpersonal scores can be too
blunt without realizing that it hurts someone. When I
was first working with students who were failing FYS
I was kind of mean. Its really better to be gentle at
first then become firmer later. They just need the
Types of Assessment

BarOn EQ-I
EBI First-Year Initiative (FYI)
Course and Semester GPA
Student Writings
Student Interviews
Student Activity (analysis)
BarOn EQ-i Pre and Post Test
Bulls Eye
EQ skills: reality testing, problem solving, self-actualization

The center of the bulls eye represents success in achieving a goal.

For example, I will pass all of my classes.

1. Ask group members to put their names on or outside the bulls
eye to represent their level of success in achieving the goal.
2. Ask each individual:
to explain her/his choice of placement
to explain her/his satisfaction with the placement
to explain what she/he needs to do to move to a more desirable
To reflect in writing about the experience
Bulls Eye
Activity and Assessment
I will pass all of my courses


Student Narrative

Goal Setting
Mid and Final Reflective Writings
Workshop Reflections
Movie Analysis
Group work
How Will Your E-Portfolio
Be Graded?

Completed all 7 steps of the project requirements 25%

e-Portfolio 50%
*followed project criteria
* accurate, complete, informative
* reflective (have I met my goals)
Presentation skills 25%
* smooth, practiced delivery, included everyone
* appropriate dress
The Majors/Careers Portfolio Project-
Assessment Form
Completed all 7 steps of the project requirements 25%

e-Portfolio presentation 50%

* accurate, complete, informative, project criteria

Presentation skills 25%

* smooth, practiced delivery, appropriate dress

Name: / Grade:
Rubric to score group participation (Empathy,
interpersonal skills, Assertiveness
Points 3 2 1 0

Participation Actively
evidence of
group goals
Helps group
achieve goals
Communication Shares ideas, Shares ideas Shares ideas Does not share
reinforces Listens to when ideas
others others encouraged
Ways to Assess
Institutional Data
Pre- Post Measures
BarOn EQ-i

Goal setting and end of the semester analysis

Student Narrative (writing, focus groups, interviews)
Student Reflection
The Bulls Eye
A collection of artifacts with feedback

Measure student writing and presentations by self, peers and

Final thoughts

Assessment should be based on curiosity

What do students do based on our efforts
Is it making a difference?
There is nothing worth teaching that should
not be assessed