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Lecture Notes

Lecture 5

Proof Techniques

Introduction to Proofs

To understand written mathematics, one must

understand what makes up a correct mathematical

argument, that is, a proof.

This requires an understanding of the techniques used to

build proofs.

The methods we will study for building proofs are also

used throughout computer science, such as the rules

computers used to reason, the techniques used to verify

that programs are correct, etc.

Many theorems in mathematics are implications, p q.

The techniques of proving implications give rise to

different methods of proofs

What is a theorem?

Ans : A statement that can be shown true. Sometimes called facts.

What is a Proof?

Ans : Demonstration that a theorem is true.

Some Terminology

propositions - Less important theorems

axioms - statement that is assumed to be true

lemma - A less important theorem that is useful to prove a

theorem

corollary - A theorem that can be proven directly from a theorem

that has been proved

Conjecture - A statement that is being proposed to be a true

statement

trivial proof - A proof that p q is true based on the fact that q is

true

Some Basic Definitions

Rational Numbers

A number is rational if we can write it as a fraction where top number of the

fraction and bottom number are both whole numbers with no common factors

Every whole number, including negative numbers and zero, is a rational number.

This is because every whole number n can be written in the form n/1

Examples of Rational Numbers - 8 (8/1) , 3/4, 1.5 (3/2), 0.333... (1/3)

Recurring decimals such as 0.26262626, all integers and all finite decimals,

such as 0.241, are also rational numbers

Irrational Numbers

An irrational number is any number that is not rational.

It is a number that cannot be written as a fraction of two integers

An irrational number has endless non-repeating digits to the right of the

decimal point

Examples of irrational number - 2 (1.414.) , (3.141592), e (2.718 )

Even numbers

A number n is even if there exist a number k, such that n = 2k where k is integer

An even number is any number that can be divided by 2 (last digit is 0,2,4,6,or 8)

examples of even numbers 6, 58, 44884, 998632, 10000000

Odd numbers

A number n is odd if there exist a number k, such that n = 2k + 1 where k is integer

i.e An odd number n divided by 2, always get a quotient k with a remainder of 1.

Having a remainder of 1 means that n cannot in fact be divided by 2

(last digit is 1, 3, 5, 7 or 9)

examples of odd numbers 7, 59, 44885, 998631

Basic operations with even and odd numbers

Addition Rule Subtraction Rule

even + even = even 4 + 2 = 6 even even = even 8 4 = 4

even + odd = odd 6 + 3 = 9 even odd = odd 85=3

odd + odd = even 13 + 13 = 26 odd odd = even 95=4

Multiplication Rule

even even = even 2 6 = 12

even odd = even 8 3 = 24

odd odd = odd 3 5 = 15

Methods of Proving Theorems

Direct Proofs

First assume p is true

Then show q must be true (using axioms, definitions)

So the combination of p is true and q is false never occurs

Thus p q is true

Example - Prove that the sum of two odd integers is even.

Proof: Let m and n be two odd integers.

Then by definition of odd numbers m = 2k + 1 for some k Z

n = 2L + 1 for some L Z

Now m + n = (2k + 1) + (2L + 1)

= 2k + 2L + 2 = 2 (k + L + 1) = 2r where r = (k + L+ 1) Z

Hence m + n is even. Hence Proved

Proof x = 2m+1, y = 2n+1

xy = (2m+1)(2n+1) = 4mn + 2m + 2n + 1 = 2(2mn+m+n) + 1 odd

Example - If m and n are perfect square, then m+n+2(mn) is a

perfect square

Proof: m = a2 and n = b2 for some integers a and b

Then m + n + 2(mn) = a2 + b2 + 2ab

= (a + b)2 is perfect square Hence proved

squares, then nm is also a perfect square.

Proof: let r and s are two integers, then m=r and n=s,

Now m . n= r s = (r s) = t where t = r s Hence proved

rational numbers is rational.

Proof: First number x = a/b, b 0 Second number y =c/d, d0

x*y = a*c/b*d since b 0 and d0 then b*d0.

Let a*c = L and b*d = m so, x = L/m

Hence x is rational number. Hence Proved

Proof by Contraposition

A proof that p q is true that proceeds by showing that p must be

false when q is false. p q !q !p

( Prove contrapositive, i.e. prove not Q implies not P )

It is an indirect proofs

Example - Prove that if n is an integer and 3n+2 is odd, then n is odd

Proof: Assume that n is even (negation).

So, n can be expressed as 2k for some integer k; n = 2k

Therefore, 3n + 2 = 3(2k) + 2 = 6k + 2 = 2(3k + 1) = 2 x even

So 3n + 2 is even. Hence proved

Proof: We shall prove contrapositive if r is rational, then r is rational

Since r is rational, r = a/b for some integers a,b

r = a2/b2. Since a,b are integers, a2,b2 are integers

Therefore, r is rational

Example - Prove that If n2 is even, then n is even

Proof: Assume that n is odd (negation).

So, n can be expressed as 2k+1 for some integer k; n = 2k+1

Therefore, n2 = (2k+1)2 = (2k)2 + 2(2k) + 1 = 2(2k2 + 2k) + 1

So 2x + 1 is odd. Hence proved

Proof by Contradiction

A proof that p is true based on the truth of the conditional statement

!p q, where q is contradiction

Example - Give a proof by contradiction of theorem If 3n + 2 is odd, then n

is odd.

Let p= 3n + 2 is odd q= n is odd

To construct a proof by contradiction, assume that both p and q are true

That is, assume that 3n + 2 is odd and that n is not odd

Because n is not odd (means even), n = 2k

3n + 2 = 3(2k) + 2 = 6k + 2 = 2(3k + 1) = 2t is even = p

both p and p are true, we have contradiction

This completes proof by contradiction, proving if 3n + 2 is odd, then n is odd

Example - Prove 2 is irrational using contradiction

Suppose 2 was rational

Choose m, n integers without common factors (always true)

2 = m /n 2 n=m 2n2=m2 (a is even if and only if a2 is even)

so m is even

m=2l 2 n=2l 2 n2=4l2 n2=2l2 so n is even

m and n are both even, thus have a common factor 2, a contradiction!

Example - Show that if n is an integer and n+5 is odd , then n is even using

a proof by contradiction

Let p= n+5 is odd and q= n is even

assume that both p and q are true

So n is odd n=2k-1 for some integer k

n+5 = (2k-1)+ 5 = (4k+4k+1) (2k-1) + 5 = 8k- 4k+ 8k-4k + 2k 1 + 5 =

8k+4k- 2k + 4 =2(4k+2k-k+1) =2t is even (where t= 4k+2k- k + 1 ) = q

both p and q are true, we have contradiction

We conclude that for every integer n, if n +5 is odd, then n is even. Hence

Proved

Proof by Cases

- Sometimes easiest way to prove a theorem is to split it into

several cases.

- the original conditional statement p q with a hypothesis p

made up of a disjunction of propositions p1, p2, . . . , pn can be

proved by proving each of the n conditional statements pi q,

i = 1, 2, . . . , n, individually.

Exhaustive Proof

- Some theorems can be proved by examining a relatively small

number of examples. Such proofs are called exhaustive proofs, or

proofs by exhaustion because these proofs proceed by exhausting

all possibilities.

- An exhaustive proof is a special type of proof by cases where each

case involves checking a single example

Example - Prove that (n + 1)3 3n if n is a positive integer with n 4

We use a proof by exhaustion.

n = 1, (n + 1)3 = (1 + 1)3 = (2)3 = 8 and 3n = 31 = 3

n = 2, (n + 1)3 = (2 + 1)3 = (3)3 = 27 and 3n = 32 = 9

n = 3, (n + 1)3 = (3 + 1)3 = (4)3 = 64 and 3n = 33 = 27

n = 4, (n + 1)3 = (4 + 1)3 = (5)3 = 125 and 3n = 34 = 81

In each of these four cases, we see that (n + 1) 3 3n for n 4

Solution: We can prove that n2 n for every integer by considering three cases,

when n = 0, when n 1, and when n 1

Case (i): When n = 0, because 02 = 0, we see that 02 0. It follows that n2 n is true

Case (ii): When n 1, multiply both sides by n, we get n n n 1

This implies that n2 n

Case (iii): In this case n 1, square both sides, However, n2 0.

It follows that n2 n.

Because the inequality n2 n holds in all three cases,

we can conclude that if n is an integer, then n2 n.

Example - Let n be an integer. Prove that 9n2 + 3n - 2 is even

Case 1: n is even

The product of an even integer and any integer is even. Since n is

even, 9n2 and 3n are even too.

Thus 9n2 + 3n -2 is even because it is sum of three even integers.

Case 2: n is odd

The product of odd integers is odd. In this case, since n is odd, 9n2 and

3n are also odd. The sum of two odd integers is even.

Thus 9n2 + 3n is even.

sum of even integers is even, so 9n2 + 3n -2 = (9n2 + 3n) + (-2) is even

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