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Diversity in Archaea, Bacteria,

and Eukarya (except for animals)

Life developed on earth 3.1-3.8 billion years
The first living organisms were simple cells
with little internal structures and primitive
metabolism (prokaryotes)
All living species evolved from them.

There are between 8 and 20 million existing

species. Less than 2 million have been named
Taxonomy = classification system
Linnaeus classification system based upon
structural similarities between species.
Modern classification system based upon
evolutionary relationships (determined by
DNA sequencing).
Classification categories

kingdom - a group of related phyla
phylum (plural = phyla) - a group of related classes.
class - a group of related orders
order - a group of related families
family - a group of related genera
genus (plural = genera) - a group of related species
Species - a kind of living organism . All organisms who
can potentially reproduce together under natural
conditions and produce fertile offspring.
Naming species

Binominal nomenclature (two names)

The scientific name of a species is formed
by the genus name followed by species
Homo sapiens Canis familiaris
3 Domains
1. Bacteria
Includes blue-green algae
2. Archaea
3. Eukarya
The Eukarya are divided into 4 Kingdoms:
Plants, Fungi, Animals and ?Protista?
Biology by Krogh: The term protist is a label of
convenience rather than a label that reflects
evolutionary reality.It actually refers to many
different evolutionary lines of organisms.

Recent studies of protist DNA and ultrastructure has

shown that the protists are far more diverse than had
been previously thought. They probably should be
classified in several kingdom-level taxa. We retain the
word "protist" as a convenient term to mean "eukaryote
that isn't a plant, animal, or fungus."
University of California Berkeley Museum of Paleontology 2011
University of California Berkeley Museum of Paleontology 2011: The 12 kingdoms

Domain Eukarya

Domains Kingdom Kingdom Kingdom Kingdom

Bacteria & ?Protista? Plantae Fungi Animalia
Cells Type Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic

Number of Unicellular or Unicellular or

Multicellular Multicellular Multicellular
Cells Colonial Colonial

Autotrophic or Autotrophic or Autotrophic Heterotrophic Heterotrophic

Type of (Saprophytic) (ingestion)
Nutrition Heterotrophic Heterotrophic

Cell Wall or Cell Wall Cell Wall

Cell Wall Cell Wall No Cell Wall
No Cell Wall (Cellulose) (Chitin)
Bacteria & Protozoa & Seaweeds, Mushrooms, Humans, fish,
Blue-Green some algae some algae, molds insects
Bacteria mosses,
(algae) vascular plants
Cell Types:
Prokaryotic: small, simple cells which lack a
nucleus and other cell structures
Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and internal
Number of cells:
Unicellular-one celled organism
Multicellular-many cells that function as
a unit. Individual cells do not survive on
their own.
Colony- a group of cells which are
attached to each other, but each cell
could survive on its own.
Type of Nutrition:
Autotrophic- an organism that make its own
food, usually by photosynthesis.
Heterotrophic- an organism that does not
make its own food, it consumes other
organisms by either ingesting them or by
decomposing them( saprophytes).
Cell wall:
material secreted by the cell
external to the plasma membrane
Chemical composition varies by
Domain Bacteria
Bacteria, includes Cyanobacteria (Blue Green Algae).
Prokaryotic organisms
Unicellular or colonial
Autotrophic (chemosynthesis or photosynthesis) or
Cell wall
Reproduce by cell division. Also have sexual
Bacteria decompose dead bodies and cause disease
Examples of blue-green algae:
Oscillatoria, Nostoc.
Bacterial Shapes

Spherical (coccus)
rod-shaped (bacillus)
Spiral shaped (spirillus)
Domain Archaea

(formerly Archaebacteria)
Some but not all live under extreme
There are basic differences between the
biochemistry of Archaea and Bacteria.
Domain Eukarya Kingdom ?Protista?
(very heterogeneous not a real group))
Eukaryotic cells
Unicellular and colonial organisms
Some do have a cell wall, some do not.
1. Plant-like protista
Autotrophic (photosynthesis): Euglena, Diatom.
2. Animal-like protista, called Protozoa.
. Move to catch food: Amoeba-pseudopodia.
3. Fungus-like protista, saprophytes.
Domain Eukarya
Kingdom Fungi
Multi-cellular, Eukaryotic cells
Cell wall
Hyphae - microscopic, branching filaments, which
take food from the substrate
Mycelium the whole group of hyphae
Several phyla of fungi: mushrooms, puffballs,
rusts, bread mold, yeast, bracket fungus, ring
Domain Eukarya Kingdom Plantae
Cell wall made of cellulose
The plant kingdom is divided into many phyla, but
there are three groups of phyla:
1. Algae (but are these in the kingdom Plantae, or
their own kingdom(s)?)
2.Primitive Land Plants
3.Vascular Plants
Textbook: Red, brown, and green algae are in
the Protista kingdom

Lab manual: Red, brown and green algae are

in the Plant kingdom (see table on page 96)

UC Berkeley: Red, brown and green algae are

in separate kingdoms.
Algae (except for the blue-green algae)

Filamentous body or flat, thin body

Eukaryotic, cells with cell wall and chloroplasts
Unicellular or colonial
Do not have vascular tissues
Most live in water
Examples of Algae

1. Green - fresh water, salt water, wet land:

Spirogyra, Ulva
2. Red algae - deep ocean: Polysiphonia
3. Brown algae - ocean, coastal, huge seaweeds:
(kelp) [Fucus].
Primitive Land Plants [Non-Vascular]
They do not have vascular tissues, so are small
They do have leaf-like, stem- like, and root-
like structures.
Examples: mosses, liverworts, and hornworts
Vascular Plants or Tracheophytes
Have vascular tissue:
Xylem transports water and minerals
Phloem - transports organic matter, mainly sugar
They have true roots, stems, and leaves
They are grouped by their reproductive
Vascular plants:
1. Seedless Plants primitive leaves, roots and
-they make spores, do not make seeds
-require water for reproduction
-Examples: Fern, horsetail
2. Seed plants
-produce seeds
-produce pollen
- do not require water for reproduction
Vascular Seed Plants
1. Gymnosperms- naked seeds in cones
*Do not have flowers or fruit
*Examples: Cycads, Ginkgos, and Conifers
2. Angiosperms
*Produce flowers [pollinated by wind, insects, birds, etc.]
*After fertilization, part of the flower develops into a fruit.
*Within the fruit the seeds develop.
Phylum Angiospermae
1.Class Monocots.
One cotyledon inside of the seed, narrow leaves
with parallel veins, and flower parts in multiples
of 3 or 6.
Grasses and grains (corn, rice, wheat).
2.Class Dicots.
Seeds with two cotyledons, broad leaves with
netted veins, and flower parts in multiples of 4 or
Beans, peas, rose, etc.