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Business Research

Types of research
1. Pure Research it involves developing and testing
theories and hypotheses that are intellectually challenging
to the researcher but may or may not have practical
application at the present time or in future. Usually
involve very abstract and specialized concepts. They add
to the existing body of knowledge.

2. Applied Research - based on data, information, issues,

happenings, methods, aspects of situations, phenomenon
, policy, administration etc. Deal with enhancement and
understanding of a problem.
1. Descriptive research To describe a situation, service etc.
that is in existence.

2. Correlational research to discover or establish the

relationship / association / interdependence between
two or more aspects of a situation.

3. Explanatory research it attempts to clarify how there is

a relationship between two aspects of a situation or a

4. Exploratory research when research is undertaken to

explore the feasibility of some work / project / or check
for options / refine the research etc.
Inquiry mode
1. The Structured approach ,Also called as the
quantitative research is called so as
everything is predetermined. It is more
appropriate when we need to find the extent
of a problem.
2. The unstructured approach , called as the
qualitative approach allows flexibility and
helps explore the nature of problems.
Difference btw research method and
research methodology
Research method Activities used to collect
data eg. Questionnaire, interview, focus
groups etc.
Research Methodology about your attitude
and understanding of research and strategy
used to answer the research question.
How is business research different ?
Breaking news !
Daily news !
Audience views!

Its Different
Umbrella-multi disciplinary
Has many levels PLC, Industry, customers, competitors,
Modes of knowledge
The researcher affects the research
Qualitative and quantitative research
Types of logic
Deductive Vs inductive
Positivist Vs Interpretivist
Objectivist Vs Constructivist
Qualitative Vs Quantitative
Deductive Vs. Inductive
A deductive approach looks into theory then
generated hypothesis from the theory then
proceeds to test that theory.
An inductive approach starts by looking at the
area of focus be in organization, business
problem etc and through investigation by
various research methods aim to generate
theory from research.
Positivist Vs Interpretivist
A positivist approach states that only
phenomena which we can know through our
senses can really produce knowledge.

Interpretivism aims to see the world through

the eyes of the people being studies , allowing
multiple perspectives of reality
Objective Vs Constructive
Objectivism states that social entities have an
existence which is separate from the people in

Constructivism is based on the belief that the

sum is a reflection of the individual parts or
Literature review
Primary literature
Secondary literature
Using Harvard Referencing for bibliography
Mixed method research
Reliability and Validity
When the research methods are repeated they
must lead to similar results
Face validity The method used for the research
should make sense even to a non- researcher.
Construct validity- The method used must measure
what it actually seeks to measure
Internal validity- is there any chance of causality
between factors.
Ethics in research
Informed consent
Stakeholder analysis
Internal researcher
Facts and observations
Facts are phenomenon we believe are true
and do not change no matter who reports
Observation is the process by which we
recognize or note facts. They tend to change
from person to person.
Eg. Sales fact vs observation
Variables in research
A variable is a physical or non-physical
quantity that can take any one of a predefined
set of values, numerical or otherwise.
It can also be defined as a formal
representation of a property of entities.
Variables can be of two types that is 1) based
on their measurability and 2) based on the
relationship with each other
1) Continuous variable
The variable that takes and infinite number of
continuous vales is called as continuous variable.
Mathematically we can say that if we take any
two values of a continuous variable we can find at
least one more value between them.
2) Discrete variable
This type of variable takes only a fixed number of
values eg: gender M/F/ LTGB
Variables based on relationships
Concept of Dependence
Researchers try to establish a relationship
between variables in their research.
Researcher manipulates a variable and
measures the effect on some other variable.
Eg. Weight and obesity
The variable manipulated is called the
independent variable (IV) and the variable
measured is called dependent variable (DV)
Independent variable Dependent variable
1. Cause Effect
2. Stimulus Response
3. Predicted from Predicted to
4. Antecedent Consequence
5. Manipulated Measured outcome
Other types of variables
Moderating variables
A second variable part of the research that is
believed to have a significant effect on the
relationship between the dependent and the
main independent variable.
Extraneous variables
Variables outside the immediate relationship
between independent and dependent
variables. But their effect on the IV/ DV is not
Intervening variables
When the IV-DV relationship is not direct and
the IV affects some other variable which in
turn affects the dependent variable.
Concepts and constructs
Concepts are abstract ideas generalized from
particular facts. They are developed out of the
individual or group experience over time. Over
time existing concept give rise to new concepts.
Concepts are also used in different fields.
Eg: concept of distance used from physics and
applied in so many areas. But distance can be
used in physical sense and in a social sense.
Hence they may mean different things to
different people.
Constructs are highly abstract concepts. They
are not directly tied with reality but are
derived on the basis of other concepts.
Scales of measurement
Nominal or classification scale
Ordinal or ranking scale
Interval scale
Ratio scale
A hunch, assumption, suspicion, assertion or
an idea about a phenomenon, relationship or
situation the reality or truth of which you do
not know.
Purpose of hypothesis
Provides focus for the study.
Tells what is under review
What kind of data to collect
It helps us test and prove the facts
Characteristics of hypothesis
A hypothesis should be simple, specific and
conceptually clear.
Eg: the average age of male students at MITSOT
is higher than female students.
Eg: Suicide rates vary inversely with social
Hypothesis should be capable of verification.
Hypothesis should emerge from the existing
body of knowledge.
Eg: sky
Hypothesis should be operationalisable-
measured, tested and conclusive.
Types of hypothesis
1. Research hypothesis
Hypothesis of Difference
Hypothesis of point prevalence
Hypothesis of association

2. Alternate hypothesis (Ho- null hypothesis)

Types of studies
Cross sectional study design
Before after study design
Longitudinal study design
Methods of data collection
Secondary data Primary data

Documents 1) Observation
Participant / Non-Participant
2) Interview
Structured / Unstructured
Mailed / collective
Problems of the various techniques
Hawthorne effect
Observer bias
Varied observations
Incomplete observations
Situations for observation
Eg: Actor

Eg: scientist
Types of interviews
1) In-depth interviews
2) Focus group interviews
3) Narrative
Interview or Questionnaire
The nature of investigation
Eg: Annonimity, freedom

The geographical distribution of the

The type of study population eg: age, literacy
Advantages / disadvantages of
Good for complex situations.
Helps collect in-depth data
Information can be supplemented
Questions can be explained
The output has wider application
Time consuming and expensive
Quality of data is dependent on quality of
Quality may vary when different interviewers
are used
Researchers bias may creep in
The interviewer may be biased.
Questionnaire types
Open ended
Close ended
Advantages and disadvantages
Less expensive
Greater anonymity

Application is limited
Response rate is low
Self selecting bias
Clarification not possible
Spontaneous response not captured
May be influenced by other questions
May consult others
? Principles
Use simple language
Reduce ambiguity
No double barreled questions
No leading questions
No questions based on presumptions
Qualitative Research Tools
Depth Interviews
Projective Techniques ( Personal values etc.)
1) Association Techniques
2) Completion Techniques ( word/ picture)
3) Construction Techniques
4) Expression Techniques
Focus Group Interviews
Case Analysis
Depth interviews
Elicit information that is difficult to obtain in
Researcher only approaches with outline
No formal questionnaire.
Eg. P&G Clean- what it denotes.
No two researcher data can be compared.
Projective Technique
Association Technique
1) Free work association technique
2) Successive word association technique
Used for testing potential brand names and
measuring customer attitude about products
or attributes.
Eg: Education
Completion technique
In this technique the respondent is required to
complete an incomplete stimulus.
1) Sentence completion eg: It was raining that
day, I was bored and hungry so I ate
2) Rohan and Pooja decide to go shopping, they
were just getting out of the car, when Pooja
remembered while they got out the car keys
were still inside the car.
Construction techniques
Pictures ( abstract), cartoons etc. with blank
dialogue boxes.

Expression technique
( eg: role playing)
Focus group, Case studies
The case method involves examining a single or
multiple situation when an organization is
addressing a problem.
Nature of secondary data
Many Sources easily available
Saves time
Relevance fit of data to information needs
Accuracy Data not collected for the said study
Sufficiency Data not sufficient for all aspects of
Availability- Data not available in usable format.