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Summer Training Report


Construction of Cement Concrete Road

Seemant Institute OfTechnology,
Submitted for Par tial fulfillment of

Bac helor of Te c hnology



J u n e - J u l y, 2017


Compiled in the partial fulfillment of
Industrial training, 2017
Public Works Department, Ramnagar (Nainital)



Under the guidance of

Executive Engineer



J u n i o r Engineer Assistant Engineer

I express my satisfaction on the completion of this su mm er training

program and project report su b m i s s i on a s a part of the curriculum for
the degree of Bachelor of Tec hnology, Civil Engineering. I express my
deepest gratitude to my super visor and mentor Mr. S AG AR BHATT ( J E )
for his kind guidance during the entire period of training. His
consistent suppor t and advices has helped m e to complete this
research project su ccessfully. A l s o I thank all the m em ber s of P.W.D.,
C.D.-2 RAMNAGAR (NAINITAL). Depar tment for their kind suppor t.
They have always been a source of inspiration to me .

I would like to express my sincerest gratitude towards my father, MR.

BHAWAN SINGH for his suppor t and guidance , my mother, MRS .

A bove all, I wi sh to ac knowledge and thank my savior and almighty for

their continual blessing and inspiration.

PWD Introduction & General Information

2. About Cement road

4. Material

5. Tests

6. Cement road construction

6.1 Preparation of subgrade

6.2 Preparation of base

6.3 Fo r m work

6.4 Watering of base

6.5 joints

6.6 Material mix & placing

6.7 Compaction

6.8 Finishing of surface

6.9 Curing

6.10 Filling joint

6.11 Edging

6.12 open to traffic

7 Reference
Intro duc tio n

Point of view geographic and population of the state is the nation's

largest state. State Industrial, e c o n o mi c and social development of the
state and the population of eac h village is absolutely necessar y to re-
connect to the main roads . In addition to state impor tant national roads,
state roads and district roads and their proper broad be made to improve
the quality of traffic point of view is of particular impor tance. Public
Works Department to build roads and improve connectivity in rural zones,
Other District Road and State broad and improvement of rural roads and
main routes narrow construction of zones and depleted br idges brides
reconstruction of the b a s e s are transacted on a priority basis . A l s o
under PradhanMantri Gram SadakYojana and pre-fabricated construction
of rural roads linking the work of other district roads broad Suddikrn the
scale b a s e s are edited.

S u c c es s f u l operation of var ious s c h e m e s for the Public Works

Depar tment engineers and super visor y boards in different
districts of the engineers office has been settled. Activities by
planning, execution, and quality control etc . remove impediments find
joy in relation to the super vision over the activities are focused.
Var ious s c h e m e s operated by the Depar tment of the Office of the
Regional Chief Engineers and Chief Engineers office .
General Information

Name of the Project: Construction of Cement Pavement Road from

Lakhanpur to Aamdanda Gate

Client: Divisional Office PWD Ramnagar

Total Length: 5km

Projects intent i s to establish a b a si s for the relationship with the

Contractor and provide a guide.This repor t has been prepared to
a s s i s t the Project Super visor in the super vision of construction for
the uniform interpretation and application of the Construction
Agreement, Special Provision and Standard Specification of the
Rrgid Cement Concrete Pavement Road.
About Road

A road i s a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places,

whic h has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by
s o m e conveyance , including a horse, cart, or motor vehicle. Roa d s
c o n s i s t of one, or s o m e t i m e s two, roadways (carriageways) eac h
with one or more lanes and also any associated sidewalks (British
English: pavement) and road verges . Roa d s that are available for
u s e by the public may be referred to a s public roads or highways .

Concrete i s widely u sed in domestic , commercial, recreational,

rural and educational construction.

Communities around the world rely on concrete a s a safe,

strong and simple building material. It i s u sed in all types of
construction; from d om est i c work to multi-storey office bloc ks
and shopping complexes .

Despite the c o m m o n u sa ge of concrete, few people are aware of

the considerations involved in designing strong, durable, high
quality concrete .

There are mainly three types-


2 Sand

3 Aggregate

A cement i s a binder, a substance that s e t s and hardens

independently, and can bind other materials together. The word
"cement" traces to the Romans , w h o u sed the term caementicium to
descr ibe masonr y resembling
modern concrete that wa s made from crushed rock with burnt lime
a s binder. The volcanic a sh and pulverized brick additives that
were added to the burnt lime to obtain a hydraulic binder were later
referred to a s cementum, cimentum , cement , and cement .
Cements u sed in construction can be characterized a s being
either hydraulic or non-hydraulic. Hydraulic c em en t s ( e.g.,
Por tland cement) harden because of hydration, a c hemical
reaction between
the anhydrous cement powder and water. Thus, they can harden
underwater or when constantly exposed to wet weather. The
c hemical reaction results in hydrates that are not ver y water-soluble
and s o are quite durable in water. Non-hydraulic c em en t s d o not
harden underwater ; for example, slaked limes harden by reaction
with atmospher ic carbon dioxide.
The m o s t impor tant u s e s of cement are a s an ingredient in the
production of mor tar in masonr y, and of concrete , a combination
of cement and an aggregate to form a strong building material.

Types of Cement:-

Portland cement
Por tland cement i s by far the m o s t c o m m o n type of cement in
general u s e around the world. This cement i s made by heating
limestone (calcium carbonate) with small quantities of other
materials (suc h a s clay) to 1450 C in a kiln, in a p ro c e s s known a s
calcination, whereby a molecule of carbon dioxide i s liberated
from the calcium carbonate to form calcium oxide, or quicklime,
whic h i s then blended with the other materials that have been
included in the mix.
The resulting hard substance , called 'clinker', i s then ground
with a small amount of g y p s u m into a powder to make
'Ordinary Por tland Cement', the m o s t c o m m o n l y u se d type of
cement (often referred to a s OPC). Por tland cement i s a basic
ingredient Of concrete, mor tar and m o s t non-specialty grout.

Anyshape desired, and on c e hardened, can b e c o m e a structural

(load bearing) element. Por tland cement may be grey or white.

Portland fly ash cement

Its contains up to 35% flyash. The fly a sh is pozzolanic , s o that
ultimate strength i s maintained. B eca use fly a sh addition allows
a lower concrete water content, early strength can al so be
maintained. Where g o o d quality cheap fly a sh i s available, this
can be an e c o n o m i c alternative to ordinar y Por tland cement.

Portland pozzolan cement

Its inc ludes fly a sh cement, si n c e fly a sh i s a pozzolan , but also
inc ludes cem en t s made from other natural or ar tificial
pozzolans . In countries and where volcanic a s h e s are

Portland silica fume cement

Addition of silica fume can yield exceptionally high strengths,
and c em en ts containing 520% silica fume are occasionally
produced. However, silica fume i s more usually added to
Por tland cement at the concrete mixer.
Sand i s a naturally occurr ing granular material c o m p o s e d of finely
divided rock and mineral par ticles. The composition of sand i s
highly variable, depending on the local rock s o u r c e s and conditions,
but the m o s t c o m m o n constituent of sand in inland continental
settings and non-tropical coastal settings i s silica (silicon dioxide,
o r SiO 2 ), u s u a l l y in t h e f o r m o f quar tz.

The s e c o n d m o s t c o m m o n type of sand i s calcium carbonate,

for example aragonite, whic h has mostly been created, over the
past half billion years, by var ious for m s of life, like coral and
shellfish. It is, for example, the primar y form of sand apparent
in areas where reefs have dominated the e c o s y s t e m for
millions of year s like the Caribbean.

In terms of par ticle size a s u sed by geologists , sand par ticles range
in diameter from 0.0625 m m (or 116 m m ) to 2 m m . A n individual
par ticle in

this range size i s termed a sand grain. Sand grains are between
gravel (with par ticles ranging from 2 m m up to 64 m m ) and silt
(par ticles smaller than 0.0625 m m d ow n to 0.004 mm).The size
specification between sand and gravel has remained constant for
more than a centur y, but par ticle diameters a s small a s 0.02 m m
were considered sand under the Alter berg standard in u s e during
the early 20th centur y. A 1953 engineering standard published by
the Amer ican Association of State Highway and Transpor tation
Officials set the minimum sand size at 0.074 m m .

Aggregates are inert granular materials s u c h a s sand, gravel, or

crushed stone that, along with water and Por tland cement, are an
essential ingredient in concrete . For a g o o d concrete mix,
aggregates need to be clean, hard, strong par ticles free of absorbed
c hemicals or coatings of c lay and other fine materials that could
c a u se the deterioration of concrete . Aggregates , whic h account for
60 to 75 percent of the total volume of concrete, are divided into two
distinct categories-fine and coar se . Fine aggregates generally
c o n s i s t of natural sand or crushed stone with m o s t par ticles
passing through a 3/8-inch (9.5-mm) sieve . Coar se aggregates are
any par ticles greater than 0.19 inc h (4.75 mm), but generally range
between 3/8 and 1.5 inc hes (9.5 m m to 37.5 m m ) in diameter.
Gravels constitute the majority of coar se aggregate u sed in
concrete with crushed stone making up m o s t of the remainder.

Natural gravel and sand are usually dug or dredged from a pit, river,
lake, or seabed. Crushed aggregate i s produced by crushing quarr y
rock, boulders, cobbles , or large-size gravel. Rec yc led concrete i s a
viable source of aggregate and has been satisfactorily u sed in
granular subbases , soil-cement, and in new concrete . Aggregate
processing c o n s i s t s of crushing, screening, and washing the
aggregate to obtain proper c leanliness and gradation. If necessar y,
a benefaction p ro c e s s s u c h a s jigging or heavy media separation
can be u sed to upgrade the quality.
Once processed, the aggregates are handled and stored in a way
that minimizes segregation and degradation and prevents

Aggregates strongly influence concrete's freshly mixed and

hardened proper ties, mixture propor tions, and ec on omy.
Consequently, selection of aggregates i s an impor tant process .
Although s o m e variation in aggregate proper ties i s expected,
characteristics that are considered when selecting aggregate

par ticle shape and surface texture
abrasion and skid resistance
unit weights and v oi d s absorption
and surface moisture

Grading refers to the determination of the par ticle-size

distribution for aggregate. Grading limits and maximum
aggregate size are specified because grading and size affect the
amount of aggregate u sed a s well a s cement and water
requirements, workability

Shape and size

Par ticle shape and surface texture influence the proper ties of freshly
mixed concrete more than the proper ties of hardened concrete .
Rough-textured, angular, and elongated par ticles require more water to
produce workable concrete than smooth, rounded compact
aggregate. Consequently, the cement content mu st also be
increased to maintain the water-cement ratio. Generally, flat and
elongated par ticles are avoided or are limited to about 15 percent by
weight of the total aggregate. Unit-weight measures the volume that
graded aggregate and the v oi d s between them will oc c u py in
concrete .
The void content between par ticles affects the amount of
cement paste required for the mix. Angular aggregate
increase the void content. Larger sizes of well-graded
aggregate and improved grading decrease the void
content. Absorption and surface moisture of aggregate are
measured when selecting aggregate because the internal
structure of aggregate i s made up of solid material and
v oi d s that may or may not contain water.

The ammount of water in theconcrete mixture mu st be

adjusted to include the moisture conditions of the
aggregate. Abrasion and skid resistance of an aggregate
are essential when the aggregate i s to be u sed in
constantly subject to abrasion a s in heavy-duty floor s or
pavements . Different minerals in the aggregate wear and
polish at different rates. Harder aggregate can be selected
in highly abrasive conditions to minimize wear.


There are four main t e s t s to be d o n e o n concrete: 1-The

S l u m p Test.

2-Compression Te s t 3-

Impact Te s t

4-Cube Te s t
The slump test i s done to make sure a concrete mix i s
workable.Workability measures h ow ea sy the concrete i s to
place, handle and compact
Standard slump c on e (100 m m top diameter x 200 m m bottom
diameter x 300 m m high)
Small s c o o p

Bullet-nosed rod

(600 m m long x 16 m m diameter )


Slump plate (500 m m x 500 m m )


1 Clean the cone . Dampen with water and place

on the slump plate. The slump plate should be
clean, firm, level and non-absorbent.

2 Collect a sample .

3 Stand firmly on the volume of the 1 / 3

footpieces and fill cone with

the sample . Compact the concrete by 'rodding' 25 times .

Rodding Rodding means to push a steel rod

in and out of the concrete to compact it into
the cylinder, or slump cone .

4 Now fill to 2 /3 and again rod 25 times,

just into the top of the first layer.

5 Fill to overflowing, rodding again this time
just into the top of the s e c o n d layer.Top up the
c on e till it overflows .
6 Level off the surface with the steel rod
using a rolling action.

Clean any concrete from around

the base and top of the cone, push

d ow n on the handles and step off
the footpieces .
7 Carefully lift the c on e straight up making
sure not to m ov e the sample .

8 Turn the c on e upside d ow n and place

the rod a c ro s s the up-turned cone .
The c om pressi on test s h o w s the c om pressi ve strength of
hardened concrete .The testing i s done in a laborator y off-site.The
only work done on-site i s to make a concrete cylinder for the
c om pressi on test.

The strength i s measured in Megapascals(MPa) and i s c o m m o n l y

specified a s a characteristic strength of concrete measured at 28
days after mixing.The c om pressi ve strength i s a measure of the
concretes ability to resist loads whic h tend to crush it.

Cylinders (100 m m diameter x 200 m m high or 150 m m
diameter x 300 m m high)
( The small c ylinders
are normally u sed for
m o s t testing due to
their lighter weight )

Small s c o o p
Bullet-nosed rod (600 m m x
16 m m )
S teel


S teel


1 Clean the cylinder mould and coat the inside lightly
with form oil, then place on a clean, level and firm
3 Fill 1/2 the volume of the mould with concrete
then compact by rodding 25 times . Cylinders
may al so be compacted by vibrating u sing a
vibrating table.

The Compression Test continues on the next

page 13

4 Fill the c on e to overflowing and rod 25

times into the top of the first
layer, then top up the mould till overflowing.

5 Level off the top with the steel float

and clean any concrete from around
the mould.

6 Cap, clearly tag the

cylinder and put it in
a c ool dr y place to
set for at least 24
hour s .

7 After the mould i s removed the cylinder is sent

to the laborator y where it i s cured and crushed
to test c om pressi v e strength.

A n impact test i s a dynamic test conducted on a selected

specimen whic h i s usually notched. The spec imen i s struck and
broken by a single blow in a specially designed mac hine .

This d e m o illustrates the experiment setup, procedure and the

energy absorbed in an impact test.

Test applied to the concrete, this

i s the utmost impor tant whic h
g i v e s an idea about all the
characteristics of concrete . B y
this single test one judge that
whether Concreting has been
done properly or not. For cube
test two types of s p e c i m en s
either c u b e s of 15 c m X
15 c m X 15 c m or 10cm X 10 c m x 10 c m depending upon the size
of aggregate are used. For m o s t of the works cubical m ou l d s of size
15 c m x 15cm x 15 c m are c o m m o n l y used.

This concrete i s poured in the mould and tempered properly s o a s

not to have any voids . After 24 hour s these m ou l d s are removed
and test s p e c i m e n s are put in water for curing.The top surface of
these specimen should be made even and smooth.
This i s done by putting cement paste and spreading smoothly on
whole area of specimen.

These s p e c i m e n s are tested by c om pressi on testing mac hine

after 7 days curing or 28 days curing. Load should be applied
gradually at the rate of 140 kg/cm2 per minute till the S pec i m ens
fails. Load at the failure divided by area of specimen g i v e s the
c om pressi v e strength of concrete
Compression testing




The propor tion and material for making these

test specimens are from the same concrete
used in the field.


6 cubes of 15 c m size Mix. M15 or above


Mix the concrete either by hand or in a laborator y batch mixer

(i) Mix the cement and fine aggregate on a water tight none-
absorbent platform until the mixture i s thoroughly blended and i s
of uniform color

( i i) Add the coar se aggregate and mix with cement and fine
aggregate until the coar se aggregate i s uniformly distributed
throughout the batch

( i i i) Add water and mix it until the concrete appears to be

h o m oge n eo u s and of the desired consistenc y.


The water for curing should be tested ever y 7days and the
temperature of water mu st be at 27+-2oC.


(I) Rem ov e the specimen from water after specified curing time
and wipe out e x c e s s water from the surface .

(AI) Take the dimension of the specimen to the nearest 0.2m

(BI)Clean the bearing surface of the testing mac hine

(I V )Pl a c e the specimen in the mac hine in s u c h a manner that the

load shall be applied to the opposite s i d e s of the cube cast.

(V) Align the specimen centrally on the base plate of the mac hine .

(VI)Rotate the movable por tion gently by hand s o that it

touc hes the top surface of the specimen.

(VII)Apply the load gradually without s h o c k and

continuously at the rate of 140kg/cm2/minute till the
specimen fails

(VIII)Record the maximum load and note any unusual features in

the type of failure.
Using mix Concrete , there some Point to
construct the road-

1. Preparation of base

2. Fo r m working

3. Preparation of subgrade

4. Watering of base

5. Joints

6. Material mix & placing

7. Compaction.

8. Finishing of surface

9. Curing

1 0 . J o i n t filling


12. Open to traffic

1. Preparation of subgrade
1. Rolling on s u b grade by roller

2. Filling the granular soil in the weak part and pot holes

3. Correct the soil coat , Camber , longitudinal slop

When concrete direct laid on subgrade, For preventing the

water-seepaging into the soil , u sed water proof paper on entire

1. Rolling on s u b grade by roller

2. Filling the granular soil in the weak part and pot holes

3. Correct the soil coat , Camber , longitudinal slop

When concrete direct laid on subgrade, For preventing the

water-seepaging into the soil , u sed water proof paper on entire

2. Preparation of base

C h o o s e any one type of base

1. W.B.M. base

A s base material of W.B.M. Road; stone ballast, concrete 10-

15cm layer are used. For bonding between concrete slab &
W.B.M. u sed 1:2 cement wa s h on W.B.M.

2. Concrete base

On the road u sed 10cm Cement concrete(1:2:4) or

lime concrete(16:32:64)

3. Granular medium material layer

10-15cm composite layer of sand , moorum , bajri are usedfor

4. Stabilization soil

3. Form work
Material for form work-

Wooden sheets , battens, plywood, fibre hard board, steel

plates, angles,rope, minerals.

1.before using form work, it should free from all type material
like a s dust ,cement.

2 .To placing the concrete in appropriate depth u sed 2.5-5cm

thick and 3mtr long w ood e n sheeting.

3. The depth of w ood en bloc k mu st be s a m e a s level of slab


4. After 24hrs form work displaced next length of road.

3. Watering of base
If base i s dr y

Than using the sprinkling p ro c es s on it properly after that

the pacing

5. Joints
Where i s necessar y to provide transverse, Longitudinal joints;
there w ed ge of woods , metals fix on level of concrete .
After setting of concrete it should be pull out.

If provided the dowel bar in joints, bars should be fit at

right position.

6.Material mix & placing

Mixer i s equipment that mix the concrete usi ng distinct
amount of cement , concrete, san d and water. Concrete
slab should have more than 5-10cm thick c a u se of dr ying.
Used two type mixer-

1. Batc h mixer-
at site, u sed for small road construction
2. Continuous mixer-
Continuous mixer u sed for large construction .
if distance i s more from site , mix concrete transpor ted
at site within setting time.
Tw o methods generally u sed in placing of
concrete-1. Alternate bay method-
Placed the concrete on both side of road
alternatively like as1,3,5 part at one side and 2,4,6 part
other side .
This method have s l ow p ro c e s s due to road traffic problems .
2. Continuous bay method-
construct one side of road regularly, if completed s o m e
part of first side than construct other side .
this method have fast p ro c es s without no obstruction of

7. Compaction

Purpose of compaction i s that to pull out air from void and

make concrete harden.

Compaction done by-

1.mechanically surface vibrator

2. manuallyhand tempers

8. Finishing ofsurface
1. Floating-
For levelling the surface u s e floating, scree-ding , power
trowel. S o that there i s no acceptable more than 3mm
variation in concrete level surface .
2. Belting-
For making surface clean u sed belting process . Belt i s
nothing but a 15-30cm thick sh eet s of c a nv a s s whic h have
more length than road.
3. Brooming-
Brooming i s the p ro c e s s in whic h w e made rough surface
parallel to road by brush.
It useful in avoiding slip & comfor table travelling on road .
The depth of line on road no more than 1.5mm.
Curing i s the name of increasing the hydration p ro c e s s of
after setting the concrete , curing p ro c e s s done till 14-
S o m e method of curing are-
1.Shading concrete works
2.Covering with hessian & gunny b a g s
3.Sprinkling of water
4.By ponding
5. Membrane curing
6. Steam curing

After dr ying road, clean the joints and fill the shelling
compound or hot bitumen .
also bitumen fill road bank.10. FILLING JOINT

11. Edging
To protect damaging the s i d e s of concrete pavements u sed
over burnt brick work.
in place of brick, provided kerb of pre mix concrete

12. Open to traffic

Generally after a month, road should be open to traffic .If
u sed rapid hardening cement it take 7 days to open traffic .

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