HORIZONTAL OR LATERAL COMMUNICATION

‡ It refers to the transmission of information among the persons of the samelevel & status. ‡ It generally takes place among departmental heads who are responsible for different functional areas of the business. ‡ It is also known as LATERAL OR SIDEWARD COMMUNICATION.. ‡ It is essential for achieving coordination in the enterprise. The methods used in horizontal communication can take the form of memoranda, letters & the personal face to face contacts.

‡ The objective of lateral communication are as under:
‡ To coordinate among various individuals or departments. ‡ To solve problems which involve the efforts of various specialists. ‡ To resolve conflicts among various employees of the department. ‡ To exchange information among various employees of the department. ‡ To promote social relations among employees in the organization.

DIAGONAL COMMUNICATION
‡ Diagonal communication is said to take place when a supervisor in one dept. communicates directly with a manager who is not only in a different dept. but also at a higher level in the organization. ‡ It cut across different function s& levels in an organization. ‡ It helps in increasing the efficiency of organizational activities. ‡ Best use of diagonal communication can be made by ensuring that cross relationship are cordial in nature. ‡ Subordinates should keep their line superiors informed of their interactions with people of other depts.

BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
‡ The term barrier means ¶hurdle·, ¶hindrance· or ¶obstacle. ‡ Barrier to communication imply hurdles or obstacles on the way of transmission of message from the sender to the receiver. ‡ Barrier refers to something non physical that keeps apart or prevents activity, movement & so on. ‡ TYPES OF BARRIERS: ‡ Physical & mechanical barriers ‡ Language or Semantic barriers ‡ Socio-psychological barriers ‡ Organisational barriers ‡ Personal barriers

PHYSICAL & MECHANICAL BARRIERS
NOISE
‡ It is the disruption or interference in communication process anywhere along the way. ‡ Noise though of varying degree, disturbs or interferes with communication. ‡ Whatever that distracts the receiver·s attention causes communication breakdown. ‡ Noise can be physical & psychological. ‡ Physical distractions or disturbances such as loud speakers, gossip etc., draw the attention of the receiver. ‡ Psychological noise is related to mental disturbences like ego clash, pre occupied yhoughts, hang over, anxiety.

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DISTANCE Long distances between the sender & the receivers can also obstruct effective communication TIME Time refers to the reaching of message. If an important message reaches late it is sure to affect communication. INFORMATION OVERLOAD It refers to excessive transmission of information. Much more information than what the receiver can process is transmitted to him/her. The receiver can·t understand , digest, analyze & act upon information overload that is beyond mental capacity.

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MECHANICAL BARRIERS ‡ Outdated machines & equipment may produce excessive noise leading to physical barriers in communication. ‡ Distraction like background noise, poor lighting., affect the morale of the employees & also obstruct effective communication.

SEMANTIC OR LANGUAGE BARRIER
‡ UNCLEAR MESSAGE Lack of clarity in message makes it badly expressed. poorly chosen & empty word , phrases, inadequate vocabulary, failure to clarify implications etc., are some common faults found. FAULTY TRANSLATION The message that every manager receives from his superiors, peers, subordinates must be translated into language suitable for the respective person( for whom the information is destined). SPECIALIST·S LANGUAGE It is often found that technical personnel & special groups tend to develop a special, peculiar & technical language of their own. It hinders their communication with persons not in their speciality, because of the receiver·s ignorance of that type of language.

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SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERS
‡ DIFFERENCES IN PERCEPTION- perceptual barriers may arise due to differences between individuals in the way they perceive, organize & understand their environment. DIFFERENCES IN ATTITUDE-people differ with regard to attitudes & opinions which often interfere with communication. If the message is consistent with our attitudes & opinions we receive it favourably. INATTENTION- communication has no impact on those who are unable or unwilling to listen. If people do not pay the required degree of attention to listening & understanding the messages they are supposed to receive. PREMATURE EVALUATION- some people form a judgment before receiving the complete message. Such premature evaluation prevents effective communication. ‡

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‡ RESISTANCE TO CHANGE-when new ideas are being communicated, the listening apparatus may act as a filter in rejecting new ideas. Thus resistance to change is an important obstacle to effective communication. ‡ CULTURAL DIFFERENCE- cultural refers to values, beliefs, norms, attitudes & perceptions of people of different nations or regions. Symbols, words , colors, gestures, language must be carefully selected when senders of information are dealing with people of different nations & regions.

ORGANISATIONAL BARRIERS
‡ STATUS RELATIONSHIP ‡ ONE WAY FLOW ‡ ORGANISATION STRUCTURE ‡ RULES & REGULATIONS

PERSONAL BARRIERS
‡ ATTITUDE OF SUPERIOR- the attitude of superiors towards communication affect the flow of messages in different directions. ‡ LACK OF CONFIDENCE IN SUBORDINATES ‡ LACK OF TIME ‡ MESSAGE OVERLOAD

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