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CELLS

The Building Blocks of Life


TY Biology
Lesson Objectives
Design one example each of an animal cell and a
plant cell.
Identifying the nucleus, cytoplasm and cell wall
(plant cell), and indicate the position of the cell
membrane.
Include cell specific organelles Chloroplasts,
vacuoles and mitochondria and give their
functions.
What is a Cell?
All living things are made up of units called CELLS.

Cells are made up of three main parts

Cytoplasm is a jelly like substance.

Cell Membrane a thin skin surrounding the cytoplasm.

Nucleus controls the activities of the cell and determines how


and when the cell divides
Cell online scavenger hunt
How many cells in the human body?
How many bacteria cells live on us?
What is the largest and smallest human cells.
Find the diameter of the average human cell
What is the average mass of dead skin cells
we carry.
What is a Stem Cell.
Cell Trivia
A human body contains approximately ten
thousand trillion cells (1.0 1016).
There are 10 times more bacteria on our bodies
than cell in our bodies

A human cell is approximately 20 microns (two-


hundreds of a millimetre) wide.

Humans carry about 2 kg of dead skin cells.


The smallest cell in the
The largest cell in the
human body is the sperm
human body is the ovum
cell; it is 85 000 times
or egg cell at one
smaller than the egg cell.
millimeter in diameter.
Animal Cell Plant Cell
The difference between plant and animal
cells
Plant Cell Animal Cell

Cell Wall No Cell Wall

Large Vacuoles Small Vacuoles

Chloroplasts present No Chloroplasts


present
Unicellular Organisms
The main groups of unicellular organisms are
bacteria, archaea, protozoa, unicellular algae, and
unicellular fungi.
Unicellular organisms fall into two general categories:
prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.
Prokaryotic - Prokaryotes are unicellular organisms that
lack organelles or other internal membrane-bound
structures and do not have a nucleus (i.e. Bacteria)
Eukaryotic - have a membrane-bound nucleus and
membrane-bound organelles, compartments with
specialized functions.
Single Celled Prokaryotic Organisms

Bacteria
Single Celled Eukaryotic Organisms
Animal Cells - Muscle

Skeletal Muscle Cardiac Muscle Smooth Muscle


is only found in is find in the lining
the heart of the digestive system.
Blood Cells

White Blood Cell Red Blood Cell Platelets

Fight Infection and Transport Oxygen around Help in Blood Clotting


Foreign Bodies the body
Organisation of Life
Cells, Tissues, Organs and Systems
Tissue
A tissue is a group of simple similar cells with a
special function

Muscle Tissue consists


of many muscle cells
Organs
An Organ consists of
different tissues working
together
The heart made of muscle
with a good blood and
nerve supply.
The stem, leaf and root are
all organs of a plant.
Systems

A system is formed by a group of organs


working together.

The Digestive System


The Circulatory System
The Respiratory System
Cells form Tissues Tissues form Organs Organs form Systems

Cardiac Muscle

The Heart
And
Blood

The Circulatory
Blood Cells System