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You are on page 1of 34

VIJAYAVITHAL BONGALE

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

MALNAD COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

HASSAN - 573 202.

Mobile : 9448821954

Problem 1.

shown in figure below, determine the interface

temperatures. For element 1, let K1 = 5 W / m 0C,

for element 2, K2 = 10 W / m 0C and for element 3,

K3 = 15 W / m 0C. The left end has a constant

temperature of 200 0C and the right end has a

constant temperature of 600 0C.

T= 200 0C T= 600 0C A= 0.1 m2

1 2 3

Finite Element model:

t1 t2 t3 t4

1 2 3 4

K1= 5 W / m 0C, K2= 10 W / m 0C , K3= 15 W / m 0C

Element conduction matrices are,

1C 2C

A1K 1 1 1 0.1X 5 1 1 5 5 1R

k

1

2R

L1 1 1 0.1 1 1 5 5

2C 3C

1 1 0.1X 10 1 1 10 10 2R

k

2 A2K 2

1 1 0.1 1 1 10 10 3R

L2

3C 4C

1 1 0.1X 15 1 1 15 15 3R

k A 3 K 3

3

1 1 0.1 1 1 15 15 4R

L3

1C 2C 3C 4C 1C 2C 3C 4C

5 5 0 0 1R 5 5 0 0 1R

5 5 10 10 0 2R 5 15 10 0 2R

K

0 10 10 15 15 3R 0 10 25 15 3R

0 0 15 15 4R 0 0 15 15 4R

Now the global equations are given by, K t F

5 5 0 0 t 1 F1

5 15 10 t 0

2

0

That is

0 10 25 15 t 3 0

0 0 15 15 t 4 F2

Since the values of t1 and t4 are given, the equations are

modified as follows

1 0 0 0 t 1 200

0 15 10

0 2 1000

t

0 10 25 0 t 3 9000

0 0 0 1 t 4 600

We have now two equations and two unknowns

10t 2 25t 3 9000

Solving we obtain,

t3 = 527.3 0C and t2 = 418.2 0C

T 0 0 0 0

Problem 2: HEAT TRANSFER IN 1D FIN

W W

k 3 h 0.1 2 0 T 20 C 0

1 cm

cm C cm C

0

0.4 cm

80 C

8 cm

1 2 3 4 5

4 linear elements, 5 nodes

Element 1, 2, 3:

W W

k 3 h 0 .1 T 20 C0

k , f

1 cm

cm 0C cm 2 0C

e e

h end h end

are not required

Element 4: 0.4 cm

80 C

k , f

h

e

end h

e

end

are required 8 cm

kA 3 0.4 W

0.6 0 1 2 3 4 5

l 2 C

5.6 W

0.093 0 2 2

6 6 C

W

hA 0.1 0.4 0.04 0 hA T 0.1 ( 0.4 ) ( 20 ) 0.8 W

C

For element 1, 2, 3

l 1 1 6 1 2

k k

0.507 0.786

h P l T 1 1,2,3 5.6

f e

f

2 1

5.6

For element 4

k A 1 1 h P l 2 1 0 0 0.786 0.507

k

e

4

l 1 1 6 1

2 0 h A

k

0.507 0.826

,

h P l T 1 0 4 5.6

f e

f

2 1 h AT

6.4

Heat source

0.786 0.507 0 0 0 t 1 5.6 Q (Still unknown)

0.507 1.572 0.507 0 0 t

11.2 0

2

0 0.507 1.572 0.507 0 t 11.2 0

3

t 4

0 0 0 0.507 0.826 t 5

6.4 0

1 0 0 0 0 t 1 80

0 1.572 0.507 0 0 t

11.2 80x0.507

2

0 0.507 1.572 0.507 0 t 11.2

3

4

0 0 0 0.507 0.826 t 5

6.4

Solving: t 80.0

T

42.0 28.2 23.3 22.1 C 0

Problem 3.

A composite wall consists of three materials as shown.

The outer temperature is T0 = 20 0C. Convection heat

transfer takes place on the inner surface of the wall with

T = 800 0C and h = 25 W / m2 0C. Determine the

temperature distribution in the wall.

T0 = 20 0C

K1 K2 K3

h, T

h = 25 W/m2 0C , T = 800 0C

Finite Element model:

t2 t3 t4

t1

Element 3

1 Element 1 2 Element 2 3 4

h , T

For element 1,

we must consider the convection from the free end (left end)

A1K 1 1 1 1 0 1X 20 1 1 1 0

k

1

hA 25 X1

L1 1 1 0 0 0.3 1 1 0 0

1C 2C

91.67 66.67 1R

2R

66.67 66.67

2C 3C

1 1 1X 30 1 1 200 200 2R

k A 2 K 2

2

1 1 0.15 1 1 200 3R

L2 200

3C 4C

A 3 K 3 1 1 1X 50 1 1 333 .33 333 .33 3R

k

3

4R

L 3 1 1 0.15 1 1 333 .33 333 .33

1C 2C 3C 4C

91.67 66.67 0 0 1R

66.67 66.67 200 200 0 2R

K

0 200 200 333 .33 333 .33 3R

0 0 333 .33 333 .33 4R

1C 2C 3C 4C

91.67 66.67 0 0 1R

66.67 266 .67 200 0 2R

0 200 533 .33 333 .33 3R

0 0 333 .33 333 .33 4R

And f

h end

(left end)

1C

1 hT A hT A 1R

f h hT A

0

0 0 2R

Therefore,

91.67 66.67 0 0 t 1 hT A

66.67 266 .67 200 0 t 2 0

0 200 533 .33 333 .33 t 3 0

0 0 333 .33 333 .33 t 4 F4

modified as,

66.67 266 .67 200 0 t 2 0

0 200 533 .33 0 t 3 6666 .6

0 0 0 1 t 4 20

We now obtain three sets of simultaneous equations in

which we have three unknown temperatures.

66.67t1 266 .67t 2 200 t 3 0

200t 2 533 .33t 3 6666 .6

On solving, we get

0 0 0

t 304.76

T 0

C 119.05 0 C 57.14 0 C 20 0 C

ONE DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT

FORMULATION OF FIN

A metallic fin, with thermal conductivity kxx = 360 W / m 0C,

0.1 cm thick, and 10 cm long, extends from a plane wall

whose temperature is 235 0C.

Determine the temperature distribution and amount of heat

transferred from the fin to the air at 20 0C with h = 9 W / m2

0C. Take the width of fin to be 1 m.

h = 9 W/m2 0C, T = 20 0C

L = 10 cm = 0.1 m

235 0C t

t = 0.1 cm = 1x 10-3 m

W=1m

W

L

Finite element model:

h = 9 W/m2 0C, T = 20 0C

q=0

t1 t2 t3 t4

235 0C

1 2 3 4

L L L

3 3 3

Element stiffness (conduction) matrices written as,

1 1 hP L1 2 1 t x W K1 1 1 h2t 2W L1 2 1

k A K

1 1

1

1 2

L1 1 1 6 1 2 L1 1 1 6

1x10 x1 360 1 1

3 9 2x1 x10 3

2x1 1

2 1

30

1 1 1 1 2

6

30

1C 2C

11.0 10.7 1R

10.7 11.0 2R

2C 3C 3C 4C

11.0 10.7 2R 10.7

k

2

3R

3 11.0

and k

2R

3R

10.7 11.0 10.7 11.0

Global structure conduction matrix is,

1C 2C 3C 4C

11.0 10.7 0 0 1R

10.7 11 11 10.7 0 2R

K

0 10.7 11 11 10.7 3R

0 0 10.7 11 4R

1C 2C 3C 4C

11.0 10.7 0 0 1R

10.7 22 10.7 0 2R

i. e. K

0 10.7 22 10.7 3R

0 0 10.7 11 4R

The force matrix is given by,

1C

1

9 x 20 x ( 2 x1x10 3

2 x1)

f

h

1

hT PL1 1

2 1

30 1 6.006 1R

2 1 6.006 2R

1C 1C

f h

2 6.006 2R

and f

h

3 6.006 3R

6.006 3R 6.006 4R

The global equations are,

1C

11.0 10.7 0 0 t 1 F1 6.006 1R

10.7 22 10.7 0 t 2 6.006 6.006 2R

0 10.7 22 10.7 t 3 6.006 6.006 3R

0 0 10.7 11 t 4 6.006 4R

1C

11.0 10.7 0 0 t 1 F1 6.006 1R

10.7 22 10.7 0 t 2 12.012 2R

i.e.

0 10.7 22 10.7 t 3 12 .012 3R

6.006 4R

0 0 10.7 11 t 4

Applying the boundary conditions, t1 = 235 0C

1C

1 0 0 0 t 1 235 1R

0 22 10.7 0 t 2 12.012 2514 .52R

0 10.7 22 10.7 t 3 12.012 3R

0 0 10.7 11 t 4 6.006 4R

unknowns.

10.7t 2 22t 3 10.7t 4 12.012

10.7t 3 11t 4 6.006

On solving

Qelement h As t avg t

3

Q total Q element And

e 1

Therefore,

t1 t 2

Q element

1 h A s t avg t h 2xL 1 xW

t

2

1 235 209.77

9x 2x x1 20 121.431 W

30 2

1 209.77 195.17

Qelement 9x 2x x1 20 109.482 W

30

2

2

1 195.17 190.39

Qelement 9x 2x x1

30 20 103.668 W

3

2

3

Qtotal Qelement 121.431 109.482 103.668 334.581 W

e1

Problem 5:

The fin shown in figure is insulated on the perimeter. The left

end has a constant temperature of 100 0C. A positive heat flux

q*= 5000 W / m2 acts on the right end. Let Kxx = 6 W/ m 0C

and cross sectional area A = 0.1 m2. Determine the

temperatures at , L , L , 3L and L , and L . Where L = 0.4 m.

4 2 4

T= 100 0C

q = 5000 W/ m2

L = 0.4 m

Solution:

Given: t1 = 100 0 C, Kxx = 6 W / m 0 C,

A = 0.1 m2 , L1 = L2 = L3 = L4 = 0.1 m

Finite Element model:

t1 t2 t3 t4 t5

T= 100 0C

q = 5000 W/ m2

L = 0.1 m

L = 0.1 m L = 0.1 m L = 0.1 m

1C 2C

A1K1 1 1 0.1X 6 1 1 6 6 1R

k

1

W/ 0

C

L1 1 1 0.1 1 1 6 6 2R

Similarly we have 2C 3C

6 6 2R

k

2

3R W/ 0 C

6 6

3C 4C

6 6 3R

k

3

4R W/ 0 C

6 6

4C 5C

6 6 4R

k

4

5R W/ 0 C

6 6

and the global structure conduction matrix is,

1C 2C 3C 4C 5C

6 6 0 0 0 1R

6 66 6 0 0 2R

K 0 6 66 6 0 3R

0 0 6 6 6 6 4R

0 0 0 6 6 5R

1C 2C 3C 4C 5C

6 6 0 0 0 1R

6 12 6 0 0 2R

0 6 12 6 0 3R

0 0 6 12 6 4R

0 0 0 6 6 5R

Since a positive heat flux q* = 5000 W / m2 acts on

the right end , we will have to calculate force term f q

at the end of the element 4.

1C

0

f N q * dS q * dS q * A 0 4R

4

q end

T

Send Send 1

1 5R

Since N1 0 and N 2 1 at right end

1C 2C 3C 4C 5C 1C

6 6 0 0 0 1R t1 F1 1R

6 12 6 0 0 2R t 0 2R

2

0 6 12 6 0 3R t 3 0 3R

t 0 4R

0 0 6 12 6 4R

4

0 0 0 6 6 5R t 5 q A 5R

*

1C 2C 3C 4C 5C 1C

1 0 0 0 0 1R t1 100 1R

0 12 6 0 0 2R t 6002R

2

0 6 12 6 0 3R t3 0 3R

t 0 4R

0 0 6 12 6 4R

4

0 0 0 6 6 5R t5 500 5R

In expanded form we have,

12t 2 6t3 600 (1)

6t 2 12t3 6t 4 0 2

6t 3 12t 4 6t5 0 (3)

6t 4 6t5 500 (4)

1 2 3

t 4 349.96 0 C , t 5 433.297 0 C

t 100

T 0

C 183.3 0 C 266.63 0 C 349.96 0 C 433.297 0 C

Problem:

Consider the circular heat transfer pin shown in the

figure. The base of the pin is held at constant temperature

of 100 0C ( i.e. boiling water ). The tip of the pin and its

lateral surfaces undergo convection to a fluid at ambient

temperature Ta. The convection coefficients for tip and

lateral surfaces are equal. Given Kx = 380 W / m -0C , L = 8

cm, h = 2500 W / m2 -0C , d = 2 cm, Ta = 30 0C. Use a two

finite element model with linear interpolation functions

(i.e., a two-node element) to determine the nodal

temperatures and the heat removal rate from the pin.

Assume no internal heat generation.

h, Ta

h, Ta

100 0C

L

Thank You

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