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# HEAT TRANSFER

## Problems with FEM solution

VIJAYAVITHAL BONGALE
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
HASSAN - 573 202.
Mobile : 9448821954
Problem 1.

## For the composite wall idealized by the 1-D model

shown in figure below, determine the interface
temperatures. For element 1, let K1 = 5 W / m 0C,
for element 2, K2 = 10 W / m 0C and for element 3,
K3 = 15 W / m 0C. The left end has a constant
temperature of 200 0C and the right end has a
constant temperature of 600 0C.
T= 200 0C T= 600 0C A= 0.1 m2

1 2 3

## 0.1 m 0.1 m 0.1 m

Finite Element model:

t1 t2 t3 t4

1 2 3 4

## t1 = 200 0C , t4 = 600 0C , A = 0.1 m2,

K1= 5 W / m 0C, K2= 10 W / m 0C , K3= 15 W / m 0C
Element conduction matrices are,
1C 2C
A1K 1 1 1 0.1X 5 1 1 5 5 1R
k
1
2R
L1 1 1 0.1 1 1 5 5
2C 3C
1 1 0.1X 10 1 1 10 10 2R
k
2 A2K 2
1 1 0.1 1 1 10 10 3R
L2

3C 4C
1 1 0.1X 15 1 1 15 15 3R
k A 3 K 3
3
1 1 0.1 1 1 15 15 4R
L3

## And the global structure conduction matrix is,

1C 2C 3C 4C 1C 2C 3C 4C
5 5 0 0 1R 5 5 0 0 1R
5 5 10 10 0 2R 5 15 10 0 2R
K
0 10 10 15 15 3R 0 10 25 15 3R

0 0 15 15 4R 0 0 15 15 4R
Now the global equations are given by, K t F
5 5 0 0 t 1 F1
5 15 10 t 0
2
0
That is
0 10 25 15 t 3 0

0 0 15 15 t 4 F2
Since the values of t1 and t4 are given, the equations are
modified as follows

1 0 0 0 t 1 200
0 15 10
0 2 1000
t

0 10 25 0 t 3 9000

0 0 0 1 t 4 600
We have now two equations and two unknowns

## 15t 2 10t 3 1000

10t 2 25t 3 9000

Solving we obtain,
t3 = 527.3 0C and t2 = 418.2 0C

## Therefore, t 200 C 418.2 C 527.3 C 600 C

T 0 0 0 0
Problem 2: HEAT TRANSFER IN 1D FIN

## Calculate temperature distribution using FEM.

W W
k 3 h 0.1 2 0 T 20 C 0

1 cm
cm C cm C
0

0.4 cm
80 C
8 cm

## (1) (2) (3) (4)

1 2 3 4 5
4 linear elements, 5 nodes
Element 1, 2, 3:
W W
k 3 h 0 .1 T 20 C0

k , f
1 cm
cm 0C cm 2 0C

e e

h end h end
are not required
Element 4: 0.4 cm
80 C
k , f
h
e

end h
e

end
are required 8 cm

kA 3 0.4 W
0.6 0 1 2 3 4 5
l 2 C

## hPl 0.1 2.8 2 W hPl T 0.1( 2.8 )( 2 )( 20 )

5.6 W
0.093 0 2 2
6 6 C

W
hA 0.1 0.4 0.04 0 hA T 0.1 ( 0.4 ) ( 20 ) 0.8 W

C
For element 1, 2, 3

## e kA 1 1 hPl 2 1 1,2,3 0.786 0.507

l 1 1 6 1 2

k k
0.507 0.786
h P l T 1 1,2,3 5.6
f e

f
2 1
5.6
For element 4

k A 1 1 h P l 2 1 0 0 0.786 0.507
k
e
4

l 1 1 6 1
2 0 h A
k
0.507 0.826
,

h P l T 1 0 4 5.6
f e

f
2 1 h AT
6.4
Heat source
0.786 0.507 0 0 0 t 1 5.6 Q (Still unknown)
0.507 1.572 0.507 0 0 t
11.2 0
2

0 0.507 1.572 0.507 0 t 11.2 0

3

## 0 0 0.507 1.572 0.507 11.2 0

t 4

0 0 0 0.507 0.826 t 5
6.4 0

## t1= 80 0 C, four unknowns eliminate Q

1 0 0 0 0 t 1 80
0 1.572 0.507 0 0 t
11.2 80x0.507
2

0 0.507 1.572 0.507 0 t 11.2

3

## 0 0 0.507 1.572 0.507 t 11.2

4

0 0 0 0.507 0.826 t 5
6.4

Solving: t 80.0
T
42.0 28.2 23.3 22.1 C 0
Problem 3.
A composite wall consists of three materials as shown.
The outer temperature is T0 = 20 0C. Convection heat
transfer takes place on the inner surface of the wall with
T = 800 0C and h = 25 W / m2 0C. Determine the
temperature distribution in the wall.

T0 = 20 0C

K1 K2 K3

h, T

## K1 = 20 W/m 0C , K2 = 30 W/m 0C, K3 = 50 W/m 0C,

h = 25 W/m2 0C , T = 800 0C
Finite Element model:
t2 t3 t4
t1

Element 3
1 Element 1 2 Element 2 3 4

h , T

## Assume A = 1 m2 , the element conduction matrices are,

For element 1,
we must consider the convection from the free end (left end)
A1K 1 1 1 1 0 1X 20 1 1 1 0
k
1
hA 25 X1
L1 1 1 0 0 0.3 1 1 0 0
1C 2C
91.67 66.67 1R
2R
66.67 66.67
2C 3C
1 1 1X 30 1 1 200 200 2R
k A 2 K 2
2
1 1 0.15 1 1 200 3R
L2 200

3C 4C
A 3 K 3 1 1 1X 50 1 1 333 .33 333 .33 3R
k
3
4R
L 3 1 1 0.15 1 1 333 .33 333 .33

## Global structure conduction matrix is,

1C 2C 3C 4C
91.67 66.67 0 0 1R
66.67 66.67 200 200 0 2R
K
0 200 200 333 .33 333 .33 3R

0 0 333 .33 333 .33 4R
1C 2C 3C 4C
91.67 66.67 0 0 1R
66.67 266 .67 200 0 2R

0 200 533 .33 333 .33 3R

0 0 333 .33 333 .33 4R

## Now the global equations will be in the form, K t F

And f
h end
(left end)
1C
1 hT A hT A 1R
f h hT A
0
0 0 2R
Therefore,

91.67 66.67 0 0 t 1 hT A
66.67 266 .67 200 0 t 2 0

0 200 533 .33 333 .33 t 3 0

0 0 333 .33 333 .33 t 4 F4

modified as,

## 91.67 66.67 0 0 t1 20000

66.67 266 .67 200 0 t 2 0

0 200 533 .33 0 t 3 6666 .6

0 0 0 1 t 4 20
We now obtain three sets of simultaneous equations in
which we have three unknown temperatures.

## 91.67t1 66.67t 2 20000

66.67t1 266 .67t 2 200 t 3 0
200t 2 533 .33t 3 6666 .6
On solving, we get

0 0 0

## The temperatures are,

t 304.76
T 0
C 119.05 0 C 57.14 0 C 20 0 C
ONE DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT
FORMULATION OF FIN
A metallic fin, with thermal conductivity kxx = 360 W / m 0C,
0.1 cm thick, and 10 cm long, extends from a plane wall
whose temperature is 235 0C.
Determine the temperature distribution and amount of heat
transferred from the fin to the air at 20 0C with h = 9 W / m2
0C. Take the width of fin to be 1 m.

h = 9 W/m2 0C, T = 20 0C
L = 10 cm = 0.1 m
235 0C t
t = 0.1 cm = 1x 10-3 m
W=1m

W
L
Finite element model:

h = 9 W/m2 0C, T = 20 0C

q=0
t1 t2 t3 t4
235 0C

1 2 3 4

L L L
3 3 3
Element stiffness (conduction) matrices written as,

1 1 hP L1 2 1 t x W K1 1 1 h2t 2W L1 2 1
k A K
1 1

1
1 2
L1 1 1 6 1 2 L1 1 1 6

1x10 x1 360 1 1
3 9 2x1 x10 3
2x1 1
2 1
30
1 1 1 1 2
6
30
1C 2C
11.0 10.7 1R

10.7 11.0 2R

2C 3C 3C 4C
11.0 10.7 2R 10.7
k
2
3R
3 11.0
and k
2R
3R
10.7 11.0 10.7 11.0
Global structure conduction matrix is,
1C 2C 3C 4C
11.0 10.7 0 0 1R
10.7 11 11 10.7 0 2R
K
0 10.7 11 11 10.7 3R

0 0 10.7 11 4R

1C 2C 3C 4C
11.0 10.7 0 0 1R
10.7 22 10.7 0 2R
i. e. K
0 10.7 22 10.7 3R

0 0 10.7 11 4R
The force matrix is given by,

1C
1
9 x 20 x ( 2 x1x10 3
2 x1)
f
h
1

hT PL1 1
2 1

30 1 6.006 1R

2 1 6.006 2R

1C 1C

f h
2 6.006 2R
and f
h
3 6.006 3R

6.006 3R 6.006 4R
The global equations are,
1C
11.0 10.7 0 0 t 1 F1 6.006 1R
10.7 22 10.7 0 t 2 6.006 6.006 2R

0 10.7 22 10.7 t 3 6.006 6.006 3R

0 0 10.7 11 t 4 6.006 4R

1C
11.0 10.7 0 0 t 1 F1 6.006 1R
10.7 22 10.7 0 t 2 12.012 2R

i.e.
0 10.7 22 10.7 t 3 12 .012 3R
6.006 4R
0 0 10.7 11 t 4
Applying the boundary conditions, t1 = 235 0C

1C
1 0 0 0 t 1 235 1R
0 22 10.7 0 t 2 12.012 2514 .52R

0 10.7 22 10.7 t 3 12.012 3R

0 0 10.7 11 t 4 6.006 4R

unknowns.

## 22t 2 10.7t 3 2526.512

10.7t 2 22t 3 10.7t 4 12.012
10.7t 3 11t 4 6.006
On solving

## The total heat loss in the fin,

Qelement h As t avg t
3
Q total Q element And
e 1

Therefore,

t1 t 2
Q element
1 h A s t avg t h 2xL 1 xW

t
2
1 235 209.77
9x 2x x1 20 121.431 W
30 2
1 209.77 195.17
Qelement 9x 2x x1 20 109.482 W
30
2
2

1 195.17 190.39
Qelement 9x 2x x1
30 20 103.668 W

3
2

3
Qtotal Qelement 121.431 109.482 103.668 334.581 W
e1
Problem 5:
The fin shown in figure is insulated on the perimeter. The left
end has a constant temperature of 100 0C. A positive heat flux
q*= 5000 W / m2 acts on the right end. Let Kxx = 6 W/ m 0C
and cross sectional area A = 0.1 m2. Determine the
temperatures at , L , L , 3L and L , and L . Where L = 0.4 m.
4 2 4
T= 100 0C

q = 5000 W/ m2

L = 0.4 m

Solution:
Given: t1 = 100 0 C, Kxx = 6 W / m 0 C,
A = 0.1 m2 , L1 = L2 = L3 = L4 = 0.1 m
Finite Element model:

t1 t2 t3 t4 t5
T= 100 0C

q = 5000 W/ m2

L = 0.1 m
L = 0.1 m L = 0.1 m L = 0.1 m

## Element conduction matrices are,

1C 2C
A1K1 1 1 0.1X 6 1 1 6 6 1R
k
1
W/ 0
C
L1 1 1 0.1 1 1 6 6 2R
Similarly we have 2C 3C
6 6 2R
k
2
3R W/ 0 C
6 6

3C 4C
6 6 3R
k
3
4R W/ 0 C
6 6

4C 5C
6 6 4R
k
4
5R W/ 0 C
6 6
and the global structure conduction matrix is,
1C 2C 3C 4C 5C
6 6 0 0 0 1R
6 66 6 0 0 2R

K 0 6 66 6 0 3R

0 0 6 6 6 6 4R
0 0 0 6 6 5R

1C 2C 3C 4C 5C
6 6 0 0 0 1R
6 12 6 0 0 2R

0 6 12 6 0 3R

0 0 6 12 6 4R
0 0 0 6 6 5R
Since a positive heat flux q* = 5000 W / m2 acts on
the right end , we will have to calculate force term f q
at the end of the element 4.

1C
0
f N q * dS q * dS q * A 0 4R
4
q end
T

Send Send 1
1 5R
Since N1 0 and N 2 1 at right end

## The global equations are,

1C 2C 3C 4C 5C 1C
6 6 0 0 0 1R t1 F1 1R
6 12 6 0 0 2R t 0 2R
2
0 6 12 6 0 3R t 3 0 3R
t 0 4R
0 0 6 12 6 4R
4
0 0 0 6 6 5R t 5 q A 5R
*

## Modified equations after imposing boundary conditions,

1C 2C 3C 4C 5C 1C
1 0 0 0 0 1R t1 100 1R
0 12 6 0 0 2R t 6002R
2
0 6 12 6 0 3R t3 0 3R
t 0 4R
0 0 6 12 6 4R
4
0 0 0 6 6 5R t5 500 5R
In expanded form we have,
12t 2 6t3 600 (1)
6t 2 12t3 6t 4 0 2
6t 3 12t 4 6t5 0 (3)
6t 4 6t5 500 (4)

## Solving, t 100 0 C(Given), t 183.3 0 C , t 266.63 0 C ,

1 2 3

t 4 349.96 0 C , t 5 433.297 0 C

t 100
T 0
C 183.3 0 C 266.63 0 C 349.96 0 C 433.297 0 C
Problem:
Consider the circular heat transfer pin shown in the
figure. The base of the pin is held at constant temperature
of 100 0C ( i.e. boiling water ). The tip of the pin and its
lateral surfaces undergo convection to a fluid at ambient
temperature Ta. The convection coefficients for tip and
lateral surfaces are equal. Given Kx = 380 W / m -0C , L = 8
cm, h = 2500 W / m2 -0C , d = 2 cm, Ta = 30 0C. Use a two
finite element model with linear interpolation functions
(i.e., a two-node element) to determine the nodal
temperatures and the heat removal rate from the pin.
Assume no internal heat generation.
h, Ta

h, Ta
100 0C

L
Thank You