Table of Contents
1. Designations and Roles of Injection Mold Component Parts 1.1 2-Plate Standard Mold 1.2 3-Plate Mold and Hoop Mold 1.3 Side Core Relations 2. Types and Characteristics of Gates 3. Structure and Mechanism of Injection Mold 3.1 Mold Opening Sequence of 3-Plate Mold 3.2 Runner ejection mechanism 3.3 Lifter Mechanism 3.4 Side Core Mechanism 4. Insert Molding 4.1 Outline of Insert Molding 4.2 Cavity Structure 4.3 Individual Part Insert 4.4 Hoop Insert

There are several factors that determine the type of the mold structure to be used: shape of the molded part, the runner system, and the runner/molded part ejection method. There are various kinds of structures depending on the combination of basic structures such as the ejector system or undercut treatment system.
2-plate Since parts and their runners are formed on the same flat surface, simply opening the mold to the stationary platen and movable platen ejects parts. This system can be applied to almost all gates including side gates and tunnel gates. This system is exclusive to pin gates. Since parts and runners are formed on the different flat surfaces, the mold needs to open its sections separately to eject them. It is called “3-plate” because the mold is divided into three sections when it is open.



sprue sprue bush locate ring

guide pin

molded part ejector pin

Parting face (PL) sprue return pin return pin

stationary side movable side runner

Fig. 2.22 section A.
stop pin

Enlarged figure of

Fig. 2.19 2-plate mold

stop bolt

runner lock pin set screw

Runner stripper plate

runner pin point gate runner

molded part tension link molded part

Fig. 2.20 3-plate mold.

Fig. 2.21 3-plate mold (when the mold is open).

” Side core Stripper Mold base stationary top plate (1) stationary plate (2) guide pin (4) movable plate (1) backing plate (1) spacer block (2) ejector plate movable bottom plate (1) Fig.24 Stripper plate mold .23 Side core mold. Fig. 2. 2. It is also called a “mold die set.Basic parts: Stationary mold Movable mold Mold that is mounted on the plasticizing unit of the molding machine. It is used as a runner ejector in 3-plate mold. An ejection method. A set of plates forming the outline of the mold. It is usually a plate. Mold that is mounted on the ejector side of the molding machine. 2 25 Die set. Fig. The nozzle touches it and melted resin is injected into it. It is able to open and close perpendicular to the closing and opening directions of the molding machine. It keeps molded parts for a moment and then ejects them with the ejector Refers to a method of undercut treatment.

they protect cavities and cores.O plate 2) movable bottom plate return spring .     Guide pins   locate ring sprue bush stationary plate guide pin movable cavity knock pin stationary cavity ejector pin (K.O plate 1) ejector plate 2 (K. With the pressure of the nozzle touch.     Sprue bush Bush used as a pouring spout of the mold. Pins used to guide the stationary mold and the movable mold. it forms the sprue that leads resin from the molding machine to the runner of the mold. At the same time.Designations and roles of injection mold parts 2-plate standard mold Locate ring Ring for locating the nozzle of the molding machine and the sprue that is the resin pouring spout of the mold.O pin) return pin movable plate spacer block ejector plate 1 (K.

  Ejector plate 1 and ejector plate 2 cooperatively pinch and hold the ejector pins and return pins. It holds the cavity to prevent cavity deflection or distortion caused by resin pressure.   Main plate installed on the ejector side of the molding machine.Ejector pins (K. They eject molded parts with the help of the ejector pins. It holds the movable side of the mold.   Spring to reset the ejector plate faster than mold closing after part ejection.   Pins used to reset the ejector plate. They are divided into the stationary side and the movable side by the parting face.   Plate installed on the movable platen with clamps or bolts. These two plates work as an ejector of the molding machine. but both of them are called “cavity” for the sake of convenience because there is no definite distinction between the two.O pin) Return pins Pins used to eject cooled and formed parts from the cavities.O plate 2)       Spacer block   Movable plate bottom   Stationary cavity Movable cavity     .   Plate installed on the nozzle side of the molding machine.O plate 1) Ejector plate 2 (K. It holds the movable cavity. The convex side is called “core” and the concave side is called “cavity” in principle. Block to support clamping force and assures the space for the ejector stroke with its thickness.   Most important parts to consist a mold. and their manufacturing costs account for 70 to 80% of the entire mold manufacturing cost.     Return springs   Stationary retainer platen Movable retainer platen Ejector plate 1 (K. They are pushed by the stationary retainer platen to reset the ejector plate during mold closing.

There are two types: one type is activated by mold opening tension and the other is by the hydraulic cylinder of the molding machine. and resets after molding to insert the hoop. It is lifted by the ejector plate. Lifter lifts the hoop and its guide when feeding the hoop after a cycle of molding.   . it needs synchronization with the ejector. When lifting the hoop. Plate installed on top of the lifter to hold the hoop. keeps being lifted by the air cylinder while feeding the hoop. It prevents the hoop from lifting up during insertion.   runner ejector plate (runner KO plate) pin gate runner section stationary plate lifter lifter pin lifter Lifter plate Air Cylinder Lifter plate Plate to fix the lifter pins. KO Lifter Hoop holddown plate   stationary top plate Lifter pin Pin to connect the lifter to the lifter plate.3-plate mold and hoop mold Runner ejector plate Plate to eject the pin gate runners in the 3-plate mold.

  Mold opening spring Mold opening bolt Spring and bolt to make a gap between the stationary top/bottom plate and stationary plate for cutting the pin gates. but both of them function the same. It activates the runner ejector plate during mold opening. There are two types. one type is forced into the stationary bottom plate and the other is forced into the runner ejector plate.     Runner lock pin Pin to fix the runner on the ejector plate and to cut the pin gate with its undercut.   mold opening spring mold opening bolt Tension link   . It also acts as a stopper for the stationary plate. Link to connect the movable platen to the stationary plate and to connect the stationary plate to the runner ejector plate. It is usually equipped with the stopper collar that limits the degree of opening.Runner ejector KO plate guide pin Pin to guide the runner ejector plate.     bolt stopper collar press-fit section Runner KO pin Pin to eject the runners when the runner lock is ejected in force by the runner ejector plate.

runner ejector plate guide pin runner KO pin runner lock pin mold opening spring runner runner ejector plate Stationary plate tension link 3-plate mold Opening condition .

runner ejector runner ejection space part ejection space When the part ejection space and the runner ejection space are maximum. Accordingly. (The space that is easy to open opens first. the runner KO pin activates to eject the runner. the gates are cut off. The runner ejection space and the part ejection space start to widen along with the mold opening. At the same time. The runner is lifted up with the runner ejector plate because it is fixed with the plate with the lock pin.) .Structure and mechanism of injection mold Opening sequence of 3-plate mold gate cut Space between the stationary bottom plate and the stationary plate expands due to the force of the mold opening spring. the runner ejection plate is pulled by the tension link and the runner lock is forcibly ejected.

Undercut : The shape that is unable to release in the mold opening direction Angular pin Inclined pin to slide the side core during mold opening.       Lock block Block to hold the side core during mold opening to prevent the side core from being opened by the resin pressure. It slides perpendicular to the mold opening direction due to the angle of the angular pin.Side core relations Side core Core to treat undercut such as side holes.     lock block side core angular pin side mold .

Side Core Mechanism Stroke S = 5. Side core stops when the angular pin reaches the limit.5 Mold Opening At the time of mold opening.5 Stroke S = 20. side core slides in the direction of the arrow due to the cam of the angular pin.5 lock block angular pin Stroke S = 5. The length of the angular pin can control sidestroke of the side core.3 side core Stroke S = 5. .

.How to decide a gate Product appearance Resin flowability After-treatment of gate Measures to poor appearance of the gate Measures to weld Measures to distortion and warping Stress cracking Gate balance Mold intensity Gates always mark products. Check if the marks do not destroy the product. Set the gate in thick areas. adopt simultaneous filling. For multiple-cavity molding. Set the gate in the point where the product will not distort or chip Set the gate where the gate is replaceable or the dent can be manufactured. (A) 1 side gate (B) 2 side gates (C) 3 side gates (D) Center sprue gate 3 pin-gates Gate positions and transformations of disk shaped products. Avoid multiple gates as much as possible. One gate is much better than multiple gates. Resins must not hard hit slim pins. When the product is long. Note that some molding materials have fluid orientation. There are residual stresses in the vicinity of the gate. set the gate at the end of the product. so gates easily crack by external forces.

Gate Weld line Weld line 1 gate 2 gates Gate positions and weld lines. .

they need to be pressed after molding. However. It cannot be used for elastic gates because it tends to cause thin burrs on molded parts. The most basic gate. and requires a special structure. Film gate and fun gate can reduce distortions and warping of molded parts caused by fluid orientation. but portion of the gate remain depending on the resin type. it cannot be manufactured depending on the product shape. It is easy to manufacture a mold. Gate that is cut by mold opening. Gate that is cut by mold opening. but portion of the gate remain depending on the resin type. but the gate requires finishing. Disk gate and link gate are used for countermeasures against fluid orientation problems. 3-plate mold is used. Side gate Tunnel gate Pin gate Shaft-off gate Film/Fun gate Disk/Link gate . Refers to an automatic cutting method for hardenable side gates. On top of that. There is a residual stress in the vicinity of the gate.Types of gate Direct gate Gate used for molding a single big article.

Film gate Fan gate .width of gate stationary platen side 2 ~ 3 mm gate land movable platen side depth of gate runner 45° ~ 65° ejector pin 15 °cone Direct gate Side gate Tunnel gate runner sprue molded part gate runner gate Pin point gate system (4-point gate).

disk gate face Molded part Enlarged area Over flow Ring gate tab sprue Primary gate Disk gate Tab gate Ring gate .

It is cheap to manufacture U shaped runner because it requires processing only one side (upper or lower) of the mold. trapezoid runner is used because it has an extended width. but they increase material loss Minimize the pitch between parts as much as possible Uniform the directions of parts to ease mold manufacturing Locate the side core on the outside to ease mold repair Consider the molded parts layout when designing the hoop U shaped runner Trapezoid runner Trapezoid runner U shaped runner Round shaped runner Runner shapes. Equidistant runners are good.Points of molded parts layout Realize simultaneous filling Decrease material loss Ease mold manufacturing Ease mold repair Regarding hoop molding Types of runner shapes Round shaped runner Round shaped runner has the smallest fluid resistance but both upper and lower molds need to be manufactured. . When using bad fluid resins.

Basic layouts of runners. 2 parts in-series 4 parts in-series 4 parts in balance 4 parts in balance 8 parts in-series 8 parts in balance 8 parts in 3 rows 16 parts in 2 rows 16 parts in balance 16 parts in balance .

Hot runner “Hot runner” means “runner less molding. Sprue less molding. When hot runner is inapplicable. Types of runner less molding Hot runner Refers to the runner that can keep melted resin right before the gate. Mini runner Sprue less Warm runner long nozzle mold cylinder mold bush type nozzle cylinder molded product molded product heat insulation board long nozzle type molded product Runner less molding. Only spur works as a hot runner. It produces no loss material. When the runner is hardenable.” This system can save resources by reducing material loss and can increase cycles by reducing cooling time. mini runner could be used as a sub runner. it is called warm runner. .

.cartridge heater hot runner block spear thermoelement Spear system hot runner. Mini runner. Layout of mini runners.

05mm (gas) PL face gate 3~ 5mm vent Runner air vent. Runner slug well. short shot or discoloration will occur. . the air is insulated. Depth 0. Core air vent. Cold slug wells are usually located right under sprues or the ends of runners.01 ~ 0. Air vent Air vents are grooves that discharge air from cavities during injection. Air vents shall be located on the front of gates or the ends of runners.Cold slug well After a cycle of molding. These half-cooled materials are stored in the cold slug well and ejected to prevent appearance failure during the next cycle of injection. Accordingly. sprue slug well sub runner Slug well combining sprue puller Sprue slug well. If air is not discharged. there remains half-cooled material at the tip of the nozzle. compressed and overheated.

product.) A simple stripper type block. KO) How to design ejector The point which has influence of mold release Good mold release balance Thick areas Effect of gas vent Good mold intensity littleEjectors should be located deep in the mold in principle. Ejectors should be located at the point where resin is filled up stack. Sleeve to push thin cylindrical sections. (Set with a core pin) Plate to push the circumference thin products such as cases. Pin used for narrow areas that cannot accept round pins. Pin insertion should not decrease mold intensity.Ejector (Knockout. and gases Types of ejector Round ejector pin Square ejector pin Ejector sleeve Stripper plate Ejector block Inclined pin Pin that is commonly used because of its ease of manufacture. It pushes the circumference of a Pin not only works as an ejector but also treats undercuts. Ejectors should be located at thick areas because they mark on thin areas. Ejectors should eject molded parts in good balance without causing distortion. (One mold base activates. .

Types of ejectors. ejector plate bottom plate Round ejector pin Square ejector pin Ejector sleeve Stripper plate Inclined pin Ejector block .

This is the most popular method. For resins with bad flowability. conditions To prevent distortion orUniform the temperatures of mold component parts. set the mold temperature high to heighten crystallinity.Mold temperature control Purposes of mold temperature control: To shorten molding cycles Lower the mold temperature to speed up hardening (plasticity). To realize beautiful surfaceKeep the appropriate mold temperature for the resin to be used. . Core cooling Cooling holes are usually located on the mold base. deformation To improve characteristics mechanicalWhen using crystalline resins. For thick or large-size products. Electric heater is applicable to hardenable resins and engineering plastics. cores should be cooled down to stabilize quality and improve productivity. set the mold temperature high To improve flowabitily Mold temperature control methods Hot water or hot oil: Cold water: Electric heater: Mold temperature controller is used. Cold water circulation unit (chiller) is used.

It is used for relatively big cores.Methods of core cooling V shaped path Partition Heat pipe Logic seal Refers to the method of manufacturing a reciprocating path in the core. Pipe that makes use of heat transferability. . Resistant to leaking since it absorbs cooling water at a lower pressure than atmospheric.. It is used for big cores. V shape path Partition Heat pipe Logic seal Methods of core cooling. The temperature controller made by Logic Device Co. Partition is used when V shape path is inapplicable. (USA).

. Many purchased pins are available at reasonable prices. When the stroke of the side core is small. This method is not suitable for molded part shapes. Side core operation methods Angular pin Angular cum Hydraulic cylinder The most popular pin.Undercut Undercut refers to the section of a molded part that cannot be released from the mold by the regular mold opening direction. Pin that slides perpendicular to the undercut while ejecting the molded part. This method is used when the stroke of the side core is large or when cycle up is targeted. Its types vary from a mere part of the mold to a main part of the mold. Undercut is designed when the undercut is a part of the part design or when the undercut is necessary to keep the part on the ejector side. Undercut makes use of elasticity of resins. Undercut treatment methods Side core Inclined pin Undercut Core that slides perpendicular to the mold opening direction. the mold can be compact. so it is mainly used to hold molded parts on the ejector side.

inclined pin This face receives resin pressure.Angular pin Angular cum Hydraulic cylinder. Applications of inclined pins Pay attention to the use of inclined pins because their sliding faces are easily abraded. The position of the slide core after ejection. angular pin slides. When ejecting molded parts. Enlarged section of the inclined pin Inclined pin .

Make the product uneven to keep it on the ejector side.Applications of undercut Sprue lock Runner lock Molded product Lock used to keep the sprue section on the ejector side. Ring type Reverse-taper Z pin Ring BTaper Sprue lock Runner lock of pin gate. Lock used to keep the runner on the ejector side after gate cut. if no problem. Enlarged undercut section Product shape Countermeasures against mold release .

the outline should be big. Even so. . Penetrating hole. Pocket carving is good for plate accuracy but deteriorates plate intensity. To use this method. However. you should investigate their intensity very carefully because wrong calculation might lead to mold damages or burrs on products. it is difficult to realize high accuracy of the bottom face. therefore. therefore. Pocket carving. Plate manufacturing methods Pocket carving Penetrating hole Grooving is the most common and the best method for keeping plate intensity.Movable/Stationary plate design It is difficult to calculate the actual intensity of movable/stationary plates because they usually have a manufactured hole. Penetrating hole Grooving is good for plate accuracy but deteriorates plate intensity. To use this method. Grooving Plate manufacturing method. the plate needs to be hardened.

Ltd. cores pins cavities. Ltd. KPM1 KPM2 KPM25 KPS1 Kobe Steel. Ltd. cores pins AUK1 AUK11 KTSM2A KTSM21 KTSM3A KTSM31 KTSM3M KTSM60 HOLDAX IMPAX PAMAX-S 35 40 U630 FDAS KAP KAP2 KSP2 KSP1 KMS18-20 KTSM60 KMS-CF19 KTSM-UMI KTSM40EF KTSM40E RIGOR STAVAX Hardening/ Temper steel 60 52 High temperature aging steel 53 43 .. Pre-harden steel 13 28 33 SC family SMC family SCM SNCM SUS family SUS family SUS family SKD61 AISI P21 AISI P21 SKD11 SUS family Mal aging -steel Non-magnetic steel HIT81 HIT82 HPM2 HPM17 HPM38 ASL3OF PSL FDAC HPM1 HPM50 HPM31 HPM38 YAG YHD50FM Daido Steel Co. Uddeholm Code S50C S55C SCM440 SCM435 SK2 SK3 SK5 SK7 SKS2 SKD11 SKD61 SKH9 SKH51 SUJ2 Hardness HRC 16-30 30-37 54-60 58-62 58-63 Applications mold bases cavities. Ltd..Steel for molds Steel for molds stipulated by JIS Type of Steel Carbon steel for mechanical structure Chrombriden steel Carbon steel Alloy tool steel High speed steel/Bearing steel Contrast chart of steel brands for molds Classification HRC JIS code Hitachi Metals. PDS1 PDS3 PD55 PD555 PD742 NAK101 DH2F NAK55 NAK80 PD613 PD555 MASIC NAK301 AUD11 Aichi Steel Steel makers Nippon Koshuha Steel Co.

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