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# STOICHIOMETRY TUTORIAL

Paul Gilletti

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Instructions: This is a work along tutorial. Each time you click
the mouse or touch the space bar on your computer, one step of
the problem solving occurs. Pressing the PAGE UP key will
backup the steps.

## Get a pencil and

paper, a periodic
table and a
calculator, and
lets get to work.

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(1-2-3) General Approach For Problem Solving:

1. Clearly identify the Goal or Goals and the UNITS involved. (What
are you trying to do?)

## 2. Determine what is given and the UNITS.

3. Use conversion factors (which are really ratios) and their UNITS to
CONVERT what is given into what is desired.

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Sample problem 1

Sample problem 2

## Limiting/Excess/ Reactant and Theoretical Yield Problems :

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Sample problem for general problem solving.
Sam has entered into a 10 mile marathon. Use ALL of the following
conversions (ratios) to determine how many inches there are in the race.
5280 ft = 1 mile; 12 inches = 1 ft

## Goal = ______ inches

2. What is given and its units?

10 miles

## 10 miles 5280 ft 12 inches = 633600 inches

1 mile 1 ft Goal
Given Convert
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Sample problem #2 on problem solving.

## A car is traveling at a speed of 45 miles per hr (45 miles/hr). Determine

its speed in kilometers per second using the following conversion
factors (ratios). 1 mile = 5280 ft; 1 ft = 12 in; 1 inch = 2.54 cm; k = 1 x
103; c = 1 x 10-2; 1 hr =60 min; 1 min = 60 s

Given Goal

-2
45 mi 5280 ft 12 in 2.54 cm 1 x 10 k hr min
= 0.020 km
hr mi 1 ft 1 in c 1 x 10 3 60 min 60 s s

c cancels c This is
m remains the
same as Units Match!
putting
k over k 6
Converting grams to moles.

## 5.17 g Fe(C5H5)2 mol

= 0.0278 moles Fe(C5H5)2
185.97 g

## Use the molar mass to

convert grams to Fe(C5H5)2
moles. 2 x 5 x 1.001 = 10.01
2 x 5 x 12.011 = 120.11
1 x 55.85 = 55.85
185.97 g
mol 7
Stoichiometry (more working with ratios)

## 2 moles of HCl react with 1 mole of Ba(OH)2 to form 2 moles of H2O

and 1 mole of BaCl2

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Mole Mole Conversions
When N2O5 is heated, it decomposes:

## 2N2O5(g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g)

a. How many moles of NO2 can be produced from 4.3 moles of N2O5?
2N2O5(g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
4.3 mol ? mol Units match
4.3 mol N2O5 4mol NO2
= 8.6 moles NO2
2mol N 2O 5

## b. How many moles of O2 can be produced from 4.3 moles of N2O5?

2N2O5(g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
4.3 mol ? mol

## 4.3 mol N2O5 1mol O 2

= 2.2 mole O2
2mol N 2O 5
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gram mole and gram gram conversions

## When N2O5 is heated, it decomposes:

2N2O5(g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
a. How many moles of N2O5 were used if 210g of NO2 were produced?
2N2O5(g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
? moles 210g Units match

## 210 g NO2 mol NO 2 2mol N 2O 5

= 2.28 moles N2O5
46.0g NO2 4mol NO2
b. How many grams of N2O5 are needed to produce 75.0 grams of O2?
2N2O5(g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
? grams 75.0 g

## 75.0 g O2 mol O 2 2mol N 2O 5 108g N 2O 5

= 506 grams N2O5
32.0 g O 2 1mol O 2 mol N 2O 5
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Gram to Gram Conversions
Aluminum is an active metal that when placed in hydrochloric acid produces
hydrogen gas and aluminum chloride. How many grams of aluminum
chloride can be produced when 3.45 grams of aluminum are reacted with an
excess of hydrochloric acid?

## First write a balanced

equation.

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Gram to Gram Conversions
Aluminum is an active metal that when placed in hydrochloric acid produces
hydrogen gas and aluminum chloride. How many grams of aluminum
chloride can be produced when 3.45 grams of aluminum are reacted with an
excess of hydrochloric acid?

3.45 g ? grams

## Now lets get organized.

Write the information
below the substances.
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gram to gram conversions

## Aluminum is an active metal that when placed in hydrochloric acid produces

hydrogen gas and aluminum chloride. How many grams of aluminum
chloride can be produced when 3.45 grams of aluminum are reacted with an
excess of hydrochloric acid?

## 2 Al(s) + 6HCl(aq) 2AlCl3(aq) + 3 H2(g)

3.45 g ? grams
Units match
3.45 g Al mol Al 2 mol AlCl 3 133.3 g AlCl 3
= 17.0 g AlCl3
27.0 g Al 2 mol Al mol AlCl 3

Now Lets
We must
Now
use work
the thethe
always
usemolar problem.
convert
molar
mass ratio.
to
toconvert
moles.
to grams. 13
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Molarity

## Molarity is a term used to express concentration. The units of molarity are

moles per liter (It is abbreviated as a capital M)

## When working problems, it

is a good idea to change M
into its units.

moles moles
M
Liter 1000 mL
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Solutions
A solution is prepared by dissolving 3.73 grams of AlCl3 in
water to form 200.0 mL solution. A 10.0 mL portion of the
solution is then used to prepare 100.0 mL of solution.
Determine the molarity of the final solution.

What type of
problem(s) is
this?

Molarity
followed by
dilution.

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Solutions
A solution is prepared by dissolving 3.73 grams of AlCl3 in
water to form 200.0 mL solution. A 10.0 mL portion of the
solution is then used to prepare 100.0 mL of solution.
Determine the molarity of the final solution.

1st:
3.73 g mol
-3
= 0.140 mol
133.4 g 200.0 x 10 L L

## M1V1 = M2V2 dilution formula

2nd:
(0.140 M)(10.0 mL) = (? M)(100.0 mL)
0.0140 M = M2 final concentration
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Solution Stoichiometry
50.0 mL of 6.0 M H2SO4 (battery acid) were spilled and
solid NaHCO3 (baking soda) is to be used to neutralize the
acid. How many grams of NaHCO3 must be used?
H2SO4(aq) + 2NaHCO3 2H2O(l) + Na2SO4(aq) + 2CO2(g)

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Solution Stoichiometry
50.0 mL of 6.0 M H2SO4 (battery acid) were spilled and
solid NaHCO3 (baking soda) is to be used to neutralize the
acid. How many grams of NaHCO3 must be used?
H2SO4(aq) + 2NaHCO3 2H2O(l) + Na2SO4(aq) + 2CO2(g)
50.0 mL ? g Our Goal
6.0 M
Look!
=

## 6.0 mol A conversion

L factor!

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Solution Stoichiometry
50.0 mL of 6.0 M H2SO4 (battery acid) were spilled and
solid NaHCO3 (baking soda) is to be used to neutralize the
acid. How many grams of NaHCO3 must be used?
H2SO4(aq) + 2NaHCO3 2H2O(l) + Na2SO4(aq) + 2CO2(g)
50.0 mL ? g Our Goal
6.0 M
=

6.0 mol
L
H2SO4 NaHCO3 NaHCO3
50.0 mL 6.0 mol H 2SO 4 2 mol 84.0 g
= 50.4 g NaHCO3
1000mL 1 mol mol
H 2SO 4
H2SO4 NaHCO3
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Solution Stoichiometry:

## Determine how many mL of 0.102 M NaOH solution are needed to

neutralize 35.0 mL of 0.125 M H2SO4 solution.

2
____NaOH 1 2SO4
+ ____H 2 2O
____H 1 2SO4
+ ____Na

## First write a balanced

Equation.

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Solution Stoichiometry:

## Determine how many mL of 0.102 M NaOH solution is needed to neutralize

35.0 mL of 0.125 M H2SO4 solution.

2
____NaOH 1 2SO4
+ ____H 2 2O
____H 1 2SO4
+ ____Na
0.102 M mol 35.0 mL
L 0.125 mol 0.125 mol
? mL
L 1000 mL
Our Goal
Since 1 L = 1000 mL, we can use
this to save on the number of conversions

## Now, lets get organized. Place

numerical Information and
accompanying UNITS below each
compound.
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Solution Stoichiometry:

## Determine how many mL of 0.102 M NaOH solution is needed to neutralize

35.0 mL of 0.125 M H2SO4 solution.

2
____NaOH 1 2SO4
+ ____H 2 2O
____H 1 2SO4
+ ____Na
0.102 M mol 35.0 mL
L 0.125 mol 0.125 mol
? mL
L 1000mL
Units Match
H2SO4 H2SO4 NaOH
35.0 mL 0.125 mol 2 mol 1000 mL NaOH = 85.8 mL NaOH
1000 mL 1 mol 0.102 mol NaOH
H2SO4 H2SO4

## Now lets get to work

converting. 26
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Solution Stoichiometry

## What volume of 0.40 M HCl solution is needed to

completely neutralize 47.1 mL of 0.75 M Ba(OH)2?

## 1st write out

a balanced chemical
equation

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Solution Stoichiometry

## What volume of 0.40 M HCl solution is needed to

completely neutralize 47.1 mL of 0.75 M Ba(OH)2?

0.40 M 47.1 mL
? mL 0.75 M
Units match

## Ba(OH)2 HCl HCl

47.1 mL 0.75mol Ba(OH)2 2 mol 1000 mL
0.40 mol
= 176 mL HCl
1000 mL Ba(OH)2 1 mol
Ba(OH)2 HCl

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Solution Stochiometry Problem:

## A chemist performed a titration to standardize a barium hydroxide solution.

If it took 23.28 mL of 0.135 M hydrochloric acid to neutralize 25.00 mL of
the barium hydroxide solution, what was the concentration of the barium
hydroxide solution in moles per liter (M)?

2
____HCl(aq) 1
+ ____Ba(OH) 2(aq) ____H
2 2O(l) + ____BaCl
1 2(aq)
23.28 mL 25.00 mL
0.135 mol ? mol
L L

## First write a balanced

chemical reaction.
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Solution Stochiometry Problem:

## A chemist performed a titration to standardize a barium hydroxide solution.

If it took 23.28 mL of 0.135 M hydrochloric acid to neutralize 25.00 mL of
the barium hydroxide solution, what was the concentration of the barium
hydroxide solution in moles per liter (M)?

2
____HCl(aq) 1
+ ____Ba(OH) 2(aq) ____H
2 2O(l) + ____BaCl
1 2(aq)
23.28 mL 25.00 mL
? mol Units match on top!
0.135 mol
L L

## 23.28 mL HCl 0.135 mol HCl l mol Ba(OH)2

= 0.0629 mol Ba(OH)2
25.00 x 10-3 L 1000 mL HCl 2 mol HCl L Ba(OH) 2
Ba(OH)2

## Units Already Match on Bottom!

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Solution Stochiometry Problem:

## 48.0 mL of Ca(OH)2 solution was titrated with 19.2

mL of 0.385 M HNO3. Determine the molarity of
the Ca(OH)2 solution.

We must first
write a balanced
equation.

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Solution Stochiometry Problem:

## 48.0 mL of Ca(OH)2 solution was titrated with 19.2

mL of 0.385 M HNO3. Determine the molarity of
the Ca(OH)2 solution.
Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2 HNO3(aq) 2 H2O(l) + Ca(NO3)2(aq)
48.0 mL 19.2 mL
0.385 mol
?M 0.385 M
L
HNO3 HNO 3
19.2 mL 0.385 mol 1mol Ca(OH) 2
=0.0770 mol(Ca(OH) 2)

## 1000 mL 2mol HNO 3 48.0 x 10-3L L (Ca(OH) )

2
HNO 3

units match!
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Limiting/Excess/ Reactant and Theoretical Yield Problems :
Potassium superoxide, KO2, is used in rebreathing gas masks to generate oxygen.

## 4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)

a. How many moles of O2 can be produced from 0.15 mol KO2 and 0.10 mol H2O?
b. Determine the limiting reactant.
4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)

Nowthe
First copy down place
numerical the
the BALANCED
information below
equation!
the compounds.

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Limiting/Excess/ Reactant and Theoretical Yield Problems :
Potassium superoxide, KO2, is used in rebreathing gas masks to generate oxygen.

## 4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)

a. How many moles of O2 can be produced from 0.15 mol KO2 and 0.10 mol H2O?
b. Determine the limiting reactant.
4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)
0.15 mol 0.10 mol ? moles
Hide
one
Two starting
amounts?
Where do we
start?
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Limiting/Excess/ Reactant and Theoretical Yield Problems :
Potassium superoxide, KO2, is used in rebreathing gas masks to generate oxygen.

## 4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)

a. How many moles of O2 can be produced from 0.15 mol KO2 and 0.10 mol H2O?
b. Determine the limiting reactant.
4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)
0.15 mol 0.10 mol
Hide ? moles
Based on: 3mol O 2
0.15 mol KO2
KO2 = 0.1125 mol O2
4mol KO 2

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Limiting/Excess/ Reactant and Theoretical Yield Problems :
Potassium superoxide, KO2, is used in rebreathing gas masks to generate oxygen.

## 4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)

a. How many moles of O2 can be produced from 0.15 mol KO2 and 0.10 mol H2O?
b. Determine the limiting reactant.
4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)
0.15 mol
Hide 0.10 mol ? moles
Based on: 3mol O 2
0.15 mol KO2
KO2 = 0.1125 mol O2
4mol KO 2

## Based on: 0.10 mol H2O 3mol O 2 = 0.150 mol O2

H2 O 2mol H O 2

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Limiting/Excess/ Reactant and Theoretical Yield Problems :
Potassium superoxide, KO2, is used in rebreathing gas masks to generate oxygen.
4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)
a. How many moles of O2 can be produced from 0.15 mol KO2 and 0.10 mol H2O?
Determine the limiting reactant.
4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)
0.15 mol 0.10 mol ? moles
Based on: 3mol O 2
0.15 mol KO2
KO2 = 0.1125 mol O2
4mol KO 2 It was limited by the
amount of KO2.
Based on: 0.10 mol H2O 3mol O 2
= 0.150 mol O2
H2 O 2mol H 2O
H2O = excess (XS) reactant!

## What is the theoretical yield?

Hint: Which is the smallest
amount? The is based upon the
limiting reactant? 42
Theoretical yield vs. Actual yield

## Suppose the theoretical yield for an

experiment was calculated to be
19.5 grams, and the experiment was
performed, but only 12.3 grams of
product were recovered. Determine
the % yield.

## Theoretical yield = 19.5 g based on limiting reactant

Actual yield = 12.3 g experimentally recovered
actual yield
% yield x 100
theoretica l yield
12.3
% yield x 100 63.1% yield
19.5 43
Limiting/Excess Reactant Problem with % Yield

## 4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)

If a reaction vessel contains 120.0 g of KO2 and 47.0 g of H2O,
how many grams of O2 can be produced?
4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)
120.0 g 47.0 one
Hide g ?g

## Based on: 120.0 g KO2 mol 3mol O 2 32.0g O 2 = 40.51 g O2

KO2
71.1g 4mol KO 2 mol O 2

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Limiting/Excess Reactant Problem with % Yield

## 4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)

If a reaction vessel contains 120.0 g of KO2 and 47.0 g of H2O,
how many grams of O2 can be produced?
4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)
120.0
Hideg 47.0 g ?g

## Based on: 120.0 g KO2 mol 3mol O 2 32.0g O 2 = 40.51 g O2

KO2
71.1g 4mol KO 2 mol O 2
Based on: 47.0 g H2O
mol H 2O 3 mol O 2 32.0g O 2
= 125.3 g O2
H2 O 18.02 g H 2O 2 mol H 2O mol O 2

Question if only 35.2 g of O2 were recovered, what was the percent yield?

actual 35.2
x 100 x 100 86.9% yield
theoretica l 40.51
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If a reaction vessel contains 120.0 g of KO2 and 47.0 g of H2O,
how many grams of O2 can be produced?
4KO2(s) + 2H2O(l) 4KOH(s) + 3O2(g)
120.0 g 47.0 g ?g

## Based on: 120.0 g KO2 mol 3mol O 2 32.0g O 2 = 40.51 g O2

KO2
71.1g 4mol KO 2 mol O 2
Based on: 47.0 g H2O
mol H 2O 3 mol O 2 32.0g O 2
= 125.3 g O2
H2 O 18.02 g H 2O 2 mol H 2O mol O 2
Determine how many grams of Water were left over.
The Difference between the above amounts is directly RELATED to the XS H2O.
125.3 - 40.51 = 84.79 g of O2 that could have been formed from the XS water.

## 84.79 g O2 mol O 2 2 mol H 2O 18.02 g H 2O

= 31.83 g XS H2O
32.0 g O 2 3 mol O 2 1 mol H 2O
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## Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 25.6 grams of

Al(NO3)3 in 455 mL of solution.

worked the