Reproduction & Growth

Biology Form 5


Gamete Genesis Gametogenesis Spermatogenesis Oogenesis Testis Ovary The process through which mature ovum is produced in the ovary The process through which mature spermatozoa are produced in the testis A haploid cell produced by sexually reproducing organisms The process of gamete formation The formation of something A female organ that undergoes oogenesis A male organ that undergoes spermatogenesis

Reproduction  Reproduction = process in which new individuals or offsprings are produced by the parents.   Sexual reproduction = Production of new individuals by living organism involving fertilisation of male gamete and female gamete Asexual reproduction = Production of new individuals by only one parent without fertilisation .

Hydra). yeast. reptiles. potatoes) . flowering plants Simple organisms (Amoeba. birds. plants (mosses. Paramecium. fish. mammals. amphibians.Types of reproduction Sexual Involves sex cells/gametes Meiotic division Two parents Genes from both parents Asexual Does not involve sex cells/gametes Mitotic division Single parent Genes from single parent Offspring genetically different Offspring genetically identical Humans.

Necessity for organisms to reproduce To ensures survival and continuity of a species To replace those that die To increase the number of individuals To pass down an individual’s genes to future generation To produce haploid gamete To ensure the formation of diploid zygote and the number of chromosomes of the new individual is kept constant .

Necessity for formation of gametes To maintain the diploid chromosomal number from one generation to the next To allow genetic variation in the offspring to give them better survival chances .

Formation of Male Gametes (Spermatogenesis) Testis Spermatogonium Spermatozoa Germinal Epithelial Cell Sertoli cell .

Spermatogonium Mitosis Primary spermatocyte Meiosis 1 Secondary spermatocyte Meiosis II Spermatid Differentiation Sperms .

Sperm    Acrosome: specialised lysosome (comprises hydrolytic enzymes) to digest protective layer of ovum & enable penetration Mitochondria: provide energy for the movement of sperm (within 24 – 48 hrs) Tail: helps sperm to move towards egg .

Formation of Female Gametes (Oogenesis)
Secondary follicle Graafian follicle Primary follicle

Corpus luteum

• Function of ovary are: • to produce ovum • to produce hormones Ovulation (estrogen and progestron) • Ovulation is a process where the Graafian Follicle ruptures and releases an ovum into the Fallopian tube.

Oogonia Mitosis & Differentiation Primary oocyte Birth Children stage Puberty
First Polar body

Foetal stage

Meiosis 1

Secondary oocyte Ovulation, Fertilization & Meiosis II Ovum

Adult stage

Second polar body


 

Both occurs in the reproductive organs Both produce the haploid gametes Both involve meiosis // both begin with primordial germ cells in the germinal epithelial layer

Differences Spermatogenesis Sperms Testis Small Four Aspect Gamete produced Organ involved Gamete size Oogenesis Ovum Ovary Large Number of One (three polar gametes produced bodies degenerate) .

neck and tail Cytoplasm divides equally Not surrounded by follicle Aspect Differentiation process Shape of gamete Cytokinesis during meiosis Follicles Oogenesis None Round Unequal division of the cytoplasm Surrounded by follicles during formation .Differences Spermatogenesis Spematid to spermatozoa Has a head.

Menstruation The breakdown of the lining uterine wall and the discharge of blood. epithelial tissues and mucus through the vagina .

Menstrual cycle Cyclic changes that occur in the endometrium of uterus to prepare for fertilised ovum and its subsequent development (implantation) • Monthly cycle of ovulation and menstruation after puberty • Average 28 days • Regulated by hormones .

Hormones: LH and FSH • Control the changes in ovaries • Secreted by pituitary gland • FSH • Stimulate follicle cells to produce estrogen • Stimulate development of follicle • LH • Stimulate ovulation • Stimulates development of corpus luteum • Promotes secretion of progesterone from corpus luteum .

Hormone: Estrogen & Progesterone • Control the changes in uterus • Estrogen • Repair endometrium • Stimulates further growth of follicles • Positive feedback on secretion oh LH • Progesterone • Thicken endometrium (increase vascularity) • Inhibits secretion of FSH and LH (prevent development of Graafian follicle and ovulation) .


anterior lobe of pituitary gland secretes FSH FSH stimulates development of follicles and production of estrogen  Estrogen stimulates healing and repair of endometrium   Day 12-13.The 28-days cycle (Day 1-14)   Day 1 menses. Graafian follicle release secondary oocyte (ovulation) . estrogen is high enough to stimulate production of LH and maturing of Graafian follicle In presence of LH.

no follicle will develop If there is no fertilization. production of FSH continues and one more follicle will develop .The 28-days cycle (Day 14-28)     LH promotes development of GF to corpus luteum to produce progesterone and a little of estrogen  Stimulates thickening of endometrium and increase vascularity for implantation  High progesterone level inhibits FSH and LH. so. corpus luteum disintegrates Estrogen and progesterone level decrease and cause breakdown of endometrium (menses) When progesterone level drops.

If fertilization occurs..      The corpus luteum does not degenerate Level of estrogen and progesterone will continue to rise Endometrium continue to grow and nourish the embryo No menstruation during pregnancy Corpus luteum continue secreting hormones for the first three or four months after fertilization. placenta will take over . After that.

Cause is unknown. may vanish when it starts or continue.Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)    Cyclical disorder of severe physical. may be due to imbalance of hormones (estrogen and progesterone) level . and emotional distress Appears 5 – 11 days before menses. mental.

PMS symptoms (physical/emotional)          Abdominal bloating or cramps Weight gain Backaches Fatigue and lethargy Greater need for sleep Depression or anxiety Mood swings Irritability Headaches .

Menopause The time when the menstrual cycle stops   Occurs between age of 45 – 55 years old Normal change when ovaries are less stimulated by FSH and LH    Inhibits development of follicles and ovulation Lower secretion of estrogen and progesterone Irregular menstrual cycle until it stops .

Effects of menopause           Can no longer have babies Decrease bone density Increase cholesterol level Mood swings Difficulty in sleeping Hot flushes Lethargy Depression Headaches Bodily changes .

Fertilisation • The process where the nucleus of the sperm fused with the nucleus of the ovum to produce zygote. secondary oocyte complete meiosis II . • Occurs in Fallopian tube • Once fertilized.

contains fluid).   Inner cell mass develops into embryo Outer layer of trophoblast will develop into foetal portion of placenta and chorion . The zygote undergoes mitosis repeatedly to form the embryo of 2-cell → 4 → 8 →→ morula (100-cell) → blastocyst (hallow sphere. The process where the blastocyst sticks to the endometrium is called implantation. zygote is produced.Development of zygote    After fertilization.

Development of zygote Zygote 4-cell stage 100-cell stage 2-cell stage Morula Fertilisation Ovulation Implantation Blastocyst .

Implantation (7-14th day) .

look alike real human being (foetus) . Has all the main tissues.8 weeks: Embryo 2.5 cm long.

12 weeks: Sexes distinct and complete placenta .

16 weeks: Heart beat starts .

foetus will die – abortion/ miscarriage) .38 weeks: Birth (birth after 22nd week may survive. If earlier.

Development of twins Identical Fertilisation Blastocyst stage Placenta Placenta Fraternal or or or .

Identical vs Fraternal Identical Twin One ovum is fertilized by one sperm to form a zygote. Two zygotes develop into two separate embryos Different Two Same sex or different sexes Different Genetic constitution Number of placentae Sex Physical characteristic . The zygote splits into two separate embryos Same One Same sex Same Differences Fertilisation Fraternal Twin Two ova are fertilized by two sperms to form two zygotes.

greater chance of survival if do not share major internal organs .Siamese twins    Identical twins which did not separate completely during embryonic development Attached at certain parts of the body or share internal organs Can be separated surgically.

Placenta in Foetal Development Foetus Umbilical artery Capillary in placenta CO2 & urea diffuse out Umbilical vein Blood capillaries Placenta Endometrium Mother’s Blood O2 & nutrients diffuse in .

  The umbilical vein carries the oxygen and nutrient to the fetus The umbilical artery carries carbon dioxide and waste product from the fetus.   Nutrients and oxygen from the mother’s blood diffuse into the capillaries in the placenta. Then.Absorption of substances  The umbilical cord contains two types of blood vessels. . they are transported to the foetus via the umbilical vein.

The waste products diffuse out of the placenta into the mother’s blood. . The waste products will be removed from the mother’s blood by excretion .Excretion of substances    Nitrogenous waste (e.g. urea) and carbon dioxide from the foetus are transported out via the umbilical artery to the placenta.

Needed by and excreted by foetus Essential substances Oxygen Nutrients Hormones Antibodies Water and minerals Waste products Carbon dioxide Urea Excess water Excess minerals …through placenta .

Why separate circulatory system?    Prevents the high pressure of the mother’s blood from damaging the delicate foetal blood vessels. Prevents mixing of blood group which may cause agglutination . The thin membrane of the placenta separates the foetal blood capillaries from the mother’s blood capillaries.The Placenta    To increase the surface area and to facilitate diffusion Has a network of blood capillaries for nourishment of the foetus. toxic substances and harmful chemical in the mother’s blood from entering the foetal blood. Prevents certain bacteria.

Science and Technology in Human Reproduction  Infertility   Family planning    Either partner is sterile Common causes:    To limit birth To limit family size     Blockage Failed implantation Inability to produce ova Unhealthy sperm Low sperm count Impotence Irregular menstrual cycle .

Infertility        Sperm bank Artificial insemination In vitro fertilisation (IVF) Surrogate mother GIFT ZIFT Cloning .

Family planning            Rhythm method Condom Withdrawal method Vasectomy Diaphragm Tubal ligation Contraceptive pills Intra Uterine Device (IUD) Contraceptive implant Femidom Mucus .

The moral issues      Should human interferes with natural processes? IVF cultures more than one embryo. Is it wrong to destroy the extras? Sperm and ova donor raise parentage issues Psychological issue in surrogate mother Selections of ova and sperm may result in ‘superior’ race .

Syphilis.Hepatitis B.Chlamydia. Gonorrhea Virus . AIDS   Treatment: Bacterial STDs – Antibiotics Avoid: Promiscuous sexual behaviour .Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)   Diseases that spread from one person to another through sexual contact Cause:   Bacteria . Genital herpes.

Bacterial STDs .

Viral STDs .


Sexual Reproduction In Plants .

The reproductive organ  Male: Stamen   Anther – produces pollen grains Filament – stalk which supports anther STIGMA STYLE  Female: Carpel / Pistil    Stigma – top of the style where pollen grains landed Style – stalk that joins stigma and ovary Ovary – contains ovule OVARY .

Each anther consists of four pollen sacs. Each pollen mother cell undergoes meiosis to produce four haploid cells or microspores (n). The nucleus of each microspore divides by mitosis to form two nuclei.   The pollen tube nucleus The generative nucleus .Formation of pollen grains     Pollens (male gametes) produced in the anther. Each sac contains hundreds of pollen mother cells (2n).

Formation of pollen grains .

Megaspore mother cell divides by meiosis to form four haploid cells or megaspores (n). Placenta in the ovary enlarges and form nucellus.Development of ovule (1)      Carpel develops into ovary. suspended on short stalk called funicle. Nucellus grows to form ovule. . One of the cells inside ovule enlarges and form megaspore mother cell/embryo sac mother cell (2n).

One develops into egg cell/ovum (female gamete) flanked by 2 synergid cells.Development of ovule (2)    Three megaspores degenerate. The cell enlarges to form embryo sac. only one megaspore survives. 3 migrate to opening of ovule (micropyle). The nucleus inside embryo sac divides by mitosis three times to produce 8 haploid nuclei.    3 migrate to one end of the cell (antipodal cells). . 2 move to the centre (polar cells).

Formation of embryo sac .

. only polar nuclei and egg cell are involved in fertilization. The matured ovule is surrounded in two layer of cells known as integument or seed coat. at the end allows the entry of pollen tube during fertilisation.Development of ovule (3)    Of all the cells in the embryo sac. The small opening. or micropyle. The other cells will degenerate.

Pollination  Pollination is a process where the pollen grains from anther are transferred to stigma   of the same flower (self pollination) of different flower (cross pollination) .

Before pollination…  Mature pollen grain consists of two nuclei:   The tube nucleus The generative nucleus .

. stigma secretes sucrose solution. It stimulates the pollen grain to germinate and form the pollen tube.After pollination (1)   When pollen grain reaches stigma.

. The generative nucleus divides by mitosis to produce two male gametes nuclei. The tube nucleus controls the direction of growth.After pollination (2)   The pollen tube grows down the style towards ovary.

.After pollination (3)  The two nuclei follow tube nucleus until they reach the micropyle and enter the ovule for fertilization.

. two male gamete nuclei enter embryo sac and undergo double fertilisation    Synergid cells and antipodal cells degenerates One fuses with egg cell to form zygote (2n). One fuses with polar nuclei to form triploid nucleus (3n). Tube nucleus degenerates.Double fertilisation   Pollen tube penetrates the ovule through micropyle.

Petal and stamen Integuments Zygote Ovary Shrivel and fall away when fruit develops and enlarges Form seed coat or testa (protective layer of seed) Forms embryo which consists of radicle. plumule and cotyledon(s) Fruit (outermost skin and fleshy layer) Triploid nucleus Forms endosperm (provide nutrient to embryo and seed) Ovule Seed . parts of the flower develops into fruit.Formation of seed and fruit After fertilization.

The Fruit and Seed The embryo .

Seed will germinate into new plant. parental characteristics can be maintained.Importance of double fertilisation      Double fertilisation is the characteristics of angiosperm (flowering plants). The formation of gametes is by meiosis. thus ensures the survival of seed in new habitat. Fruit protects seed and aids the development of seed. Random fusion lead to variation and survival of species. endosperm provides food for embryo. During germination. . Therefore. Fertilisation ensures the passing down of genetic information to next generation. Seeds are surrounded by fleshy fruit.


Growth in multicellular organisms    Growth is irreversible and a permanent process Takes place from the zygote stage to adulthood Results in:    Increase in the number of cells Increase in size and body mass Change in shape and function .

S. Root tip .Growth zone in shoot tip and root tip L. Shoot tip L.S.

Zone 1: Division   Increase the number of cell by mitosis The meristematic cells at the apical meristem:    are small and closely arranged have large nucleus and thin cell wall Have no vacuole and surrounded by condense cytoplasm .

Zone 2: Elongation  Cells elongate and expand because of:    Absorption of water by osmosis Vacuoles increase in size Small vacuoles fuse to form large central vacuole .

:     Parenchyma Guard cell Xylem and phloem Epidermis .Zone 3: Differentiation   Cells change shape to form specialized cells with specific functions Cells differentiate into permanent tissues e.g.


Parameters in growth     Length and height Volume Dry mass or biomass Fresh mass .

Length and height
  

To show increase in size Suitable to measure plant growth Advantage
 

Easy to measure No need to kill / damage organisms One dimension only (do not take into account other dimension such as diameter)


 

More accurate but not practical Suitable for aquatic organisms

Dry mass

The mass of organisms after all water has been removed from living tissues by heat Suitable for plant but not human and animals Advantage

Accurate Kill / destroy organisms Large number of samples

 

Fresh mass    The mass of living organisms without removing water from its body Suitable for human and animals Advantage   Easy and convenient No need to kill / destroy organisms Inaccurate (affected by amount of water)  Disadvantage  .

Growth Curve   Obtained by plotting growth parameters against certain duration of time Generally S-shaped or sigmoid curve (but different organisms may have different growth patterns) L M N O P Parameter Time .

The phases of sigmoid curve L Lag     Parameter L M NOP Time Growth rate is low Period for adaptation to environment Little or no cell growth Cells start to divide by mitosis Growth rate is the fastest (exponential) Increase number of cells Increase size of organisms Adequate nutrients Growth rate slows down at maturity Cell reached maximum size Growth limited by internal factors (eg hormone) and external factors (eg food) M Exponential     N Maturity    .

The phases of sigmoid curve O Stationary    Parameter L M NOP Time Slow or no growth Size remains unchanged Cell division to replace dead or damage cells Negative growth rate because of ageing (eventually die) Lack of growth factors and nutrients results in death P Senescence / Death   .

divides to replace dead faster.Human growth curve Infant Childhood Adolescent Rapid Adult Ageing Negative. Late Male faster or damaged cells. Muscle and cartilage degenerates. Early Static / zero / plateau. female rate. male than female faster (because remains of puberty) Male Female Time/year . Size decrease. Cell phase. size phase. Eventually die Height/cm Slower at Very fast. constant Reach maturity.

Metamorphosis    Arthropods and crustaceans have exoskeleton of chitin Growth is hindered so they undergo moulting periodically (intermittent growth pattern) Growth curve is in the series of steps or ladder-like Incomplete metamorphosis .

old skeleton is shed : No.Insect Growth Curve adult Instar longer when reaching adulthood Key I-V V Body length/mm IV III II I egg Time/days During ecdysis. of instar/ nymphs Vertical lines : sudden growth spurts/moulting/ ecdysis Horizontal lines: zero growth/ instar : start of ecdysis : hatch . insect breathes and eat a lot to expand.

Primary and Secondary Growth in Plants   Plant growth occurs only at certain parts called meristem. which consists young cells that undergo mitosis actively Types of meristem:    Apical meristem (shoot and root tip) Lateral meristem (vascular cambium and cork cambium) Intercalary meristem (nodes of grasses/ monocots)  The tissues divide and differentiates to perform primary and secondary growth .

Meristematic tissue according to position .

Forms cortex. Aim:   To increase length of stems and roots (vertical growth) To build ground tissues . Involved apical and intercalary meristem.Primary growth     Occurs after germination in all woody and non-woody plants. primary phloem and xylem.

Non-woody plants such as corn (herbaceous monocot) and broad bean (herbaceous dicot).  The growth curve is single S-shaped. Stored food (starch) is used for respiration during germination. Time/month . Therefore weight is reduced. dry mass/g   Annual plants (grow for a season / one year only).Primary growth curve  Limited to: Parameter.

Aim:  To increase diameter of stems.  Vascular cambium forms secondary phloem and xylem.Secondary growth    Occurs after primary growth in woody plants and some monocotyledons. Involved lateral meristem.  Cork cambium forms cork and secondary cortex. trunks.  Primary growth still going on at different location. and roots (girth)  To improve the transport system through formation of secondary tissues .

Shows both primary and secondary growth. dry mass/kg Occurs in perennial plant. Parameter.  The growth curve is a series of continuous Sshaped.Secondary growth curve    Growth is unlimited. Time/year . Reduced in weight caused by shedding of fruits and leaves.

xylem cells are large with thin cell wall (light ring) Autumn & winter – xylem cells small and thick-walled (dark ring) . rate of growth different according to seasons and produce annual ring   Spring & summer – rate high. thickened by suberin (prevent water loss and offer protection) secondary cortex (inner region)  In temperate region.Secondary growth in dicot stems  Vascular cambium      Primary xylem is pushed to the pith Secondary xylem is thickened with lignin to give mechanical strength divides laterally to form a ring then divides tangentially to form secondary phloem (outward) and xylem (inward) Cork cambium is activated for healing purpose and divides to form:   cork cell (outer region).

therefore cork cambium is activated for healing purpose  secondary xylem (inner side) secondary phloem (outer side) Cork cambium divides to form:   cork cell (outer region) to protect root tissue from mechanical injury secondary cortex (inner region) .Secondary growth in dicot roots  Vascular cambium divides laterally to form a ring   Cambium cell divides to form:   The epidermis stretched and cracked.

Dicot stem and root .

.  Divide to form new vascular tissue (inside) and secondary cortex (outside). Vascular cambium ring is formed in cortex.Secondary growth in monocot plants   Monocot plants do not have secondary growth except in certain species.  The root shows no secondary thickening.

The importance of primary growth  To increase in height and length  Shoots to reach sunlight and roots to search for water. Phloem is to transport glucose to all parts of the plants. xylem is to transport water and mineral to the leaves Lignified xylem is to support the plants.  Transport   Support  .

mineral and organic nutrients  Replace damaged and old ones Produce tough bark  Decrease water loss through stems  Protects against parasitic fungi and insects attack Increase opportunities to produce seed  For dispersal and live longer .The importance of secondary growth     Increase in height and diameter for support Produce secondary xylem and phloem  To accommodate increase in demand of water.

Presence of lateral meristem Plants undergo secondary growth Mostly dicots Trees and shrubs (woody) Long Throughout lifespan Usually tall Present Plants do not undergo secondary growth Mostly monocots Herbs (non-woody) Short One to two years only Usually short Absent . Plant characteristics 3.Differences: Aspects 1. Type of plant 2. Period of growth 5. Lifespan 4. Average height of tree 6.

Differences: Aspects 7. Presence of wood in the stem 9.Texture of the bark Plants undergo secondary growth Present Present Plants do not undergo secondary growth Absent Absent Trunks have high Trunks do not have high commercial value (big commercial value (small and hard) and slender) Thick Thin or do not have bark . Potential for commercial use 10. Present of annual growth ring 8.

Similarities:    Both undergo primary growth Both xylem function to transport water and minerals Both phloem function to transport glucose .

The importance of plants that undergo secondary growth     Many seeds for propagation and continuation of species Can survive in dense population by competing for sunlight and nutrients Can improve transport system and maintain water cycle in ecosystem Maintain carbon and oxygen cycles .

furniture. fragrance and industrial uses . jewelry Essential oil – extracted volatile aroma compounds from plants  Pharmaceutical. healing agent. antiseptic.The economic importance of plants that undergo secondary growth    Large and hard woody stem contributes to logging activity. repel lent. paper Amber – fossilized tree resin  Perfume.  Construction. flavouring.

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