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ANTI-BIOTIC

There are the broad spectrum antibiotics which


fights a large number of bacteria's and there are
the narrow spectrum antibiotics which only fight
few bacteria's
Classes of ANTI-BIOTICS

BASE ON THERE USES TYPES OF ANTI-BIOTICS


Antimetabolites. Bacteriostatic
Protein synthesis inhibitors. bacteriocidal
DNA gyrase inhibitors.
(E.T.C)
BACTERIOSTATIC
ANTI-BIOTICS
They are the type of
antibiotics that only helps the
white blood cells to fight
against the harmful bacteria
but they are so lazy that they
dont kill the bacteria
themselves, they just weaken
it and they are the most
common type of antibiotics
like the protein synthesis
inhibitor.
BACTERIOCIDAL ANTI-
BIOTICS

They are the type of antibiotics that


completely take over the job of the
immune system in fighting the harmful
bacterial by completely fighting it over
and they are no there to assist the
immune system as they are just there to
tell the immune system that they are more
powerful and are better than the immune
system when it comes to fighting bacteria.
A very common example is penicillin, it
destroys the cell wall of the bacteria.
COMMON ANTI-BIOTICS AND THE WAY THEY WORK ABOUT.

Antimetabolit These type of antibiotic target the metabolic


es pathways which causes death as it blocks the
(Sulphonamid production of the bacteria nucleic acid.
es)
DNA gyrase Its a type of antibiotics that stops the
inhibitors(qui bacterial DNA coiling up so it no longer fits
nolone) within the cytoplasm of the bacteria.
Protein Its a type of antibiotics that interrupt the
synthesis transcription and translation so no protein is
inhibitors( tet formed.
racyclines)
Penicillin These type of antibiotic are the ones that
weakens the cell walls of the bacteria which
means that the content of the bacteria would
split out as the walls wont be able to keep it.
Effectiveness of antimicrobial drugs
1.CONCENTRATION OF DRUG IN AREA OF BODY
2.PH
3.SUSCEPTIBILTY OF PATHOGEN TO PARTICULAR ANTIBIOTIC
4.HOW EASILY DRUG CAN REACH TISSUE AND HOW QUICKLY IT IS
EXCRETED
An antiobiotic works only if
Microbe has a binding site for the drug
A biochemical pathway or metabolic process in microbe with which
antibiotic can interfere

Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance


Bacteria becomes resistant by mutation , mutation results in one of the
following
new biochemical pathway
makes cell wall impermeable to antibiotic
( e.g ancomycin)
Gets rid of cell wall ( e.g mycoplasma)

Acquires a antibiotic destroying gene ( e.g penicillin , ampicillin)

creating efflux pumps


Hospital acquired infections
Superbugs are found mostly at hospitals and care homes , where patients are
ill or have had surgery and there is a lot of antibiotic use
codes of practice have been developed in order to control infection and
prevent it
MRSA
(methicillin resistant staphylococcus
aureus)

Staphylococcus aureus is on human skin and nasal passage and causes no


problem
If it goes into the body it causes infections resulting in boiling and abcesses
Excessive treatment using methicillin gave rise to mrsa
Mrsa produces methillinase , destroying antibiotic
Now mrsa infections are treated using high doses of sparingly used antibiotics
C.difficile

C.Difficile means clostridium


difficile. It a type of anaerobic
bacteria a obligated anaerobic
bacteria that lives in human gut
and also compete with the guts
normal flora. This bacterium is a
very dangerous one and can be
spread easily just by touching
and also can survive a long and
dry condition YUCK!!!!!!!
The end fellas
Dont ask me any question cause the thing
goes..