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Occupational &
Environmental
Diseases
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Contents 44
Water Pollution
Minamata Disease
Cholera
Hepatitis A
Air Pollution
Parts of Respiratory System
Asthma
Emphysema
Bronchitis
Lung Cancer
Noise Pollution
Sleep Disturbance
Cardiovascular Diseases
Psychiatric Disorder
Endocrine Responses
Temporary & Permanent Deafness
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Water Pollution
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Minamata disease 44

It is a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury


poisoning
Minamata disease was first discovered in Minamata city
in Kumamoto prefecture, Japan, in 1956.
It was caused by the release
of methylmercury in the
industrial wastewater from
the Chisso Corporation's
chemical factory.
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Minamata disease cont 44

Highly toxic chemical bioaccumulated in shellfish and fish


in Minamata Bay and the Shiranui Sea, which, when eaten
by the local populace, resulted in mercury poisoning

Fish & Shellfish Cats Humans


Control 0.9-3.66 Control Less Than
Oyster 5.6
3.0
Gray Mullet 10.6 Kidney 12.2-36.1 Kidney 3.1-144.0
Short-necked Clam 20.0 Liver 37-145.5 Liver 0.3-70.5
China Fish 24.1 Brain 8-18 Brain 0.1-24.8
Crab 35.7 Hair 21-70 Hair 96-705
Mercury Concentrations In Tissue Samples (Ppm)*
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Minamata disease cont 44

Symptoms
Ataxia
Numbness in the hands and feet
General muscle weakness
Narrowing of the field of vision
Damage to hearing and speech
In extreme cases, insanity, paralysis, coma,
and death follow within weeks of the onset of symptoms
As of March 2001, 2,265 victims had been officially
recognised , 1,784 of whom had died.
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Cholera 44
Caused by ingestion of food or water
contaminated with the
bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

Key facts
Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal
disease that can kill within hours
if left untreated.
An estimated 35 million cholera
cases and 100 000120 000
Vibrio cholerae
deaths due to cholera every year.
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Symptoms 44
Watery diarrhoea and vomiting.
Fever is rare
Muscle cramping and Weakness

Transmission
Transmission is primarily by the faecal contamination of
food and water caused by poor sanitation
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Mechanism 44

Most bacteria do not survive the acidic conditions of


the human stomach
The few surviving bacteria conserve their energy and
stored nutrients during the passage through the stomach
by shutting down much protein production
On reaching the intestinal wall, V. cholerae start
producing the toxic proteins that give the infected person
a watery diarrhoea
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Prevention and control 44

Surveillance
Sterilization
Sewage treatment
Water purification

Treatment
Oral rehydration salts
Appropriate antibiotics
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Hepatitis A 44
Hepatitis A is a viral liver disease that can cause mild to severe
illness
The hepatitis A virus is transmitted through ingestion of
contaminated food and water, or through direct contact with an
infectious person
Globally, there are an estimated 1.4 million cases of hepatitis A
every year
Epidemics related to contaminated food or water can erupt
explosively, such as the epidemic in Shanghai in 1988 that
affected about 300 000 people
The disease is closely associated with a lack of safe water,
inadequate sanitation and poor personal hygiene.
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Symptoms 44
Include fever
Malaise
Loss of appetite
Diarrhoea
Nausea
Abdominal discomfort
Dark-coloured urine
Jaundice (a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes)
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Prevention and Control 44

Adequate supplies of safe drinking water


Proper disposal of sewage within communities
Personal hygiene practices such as regular hand-
washing with safe water.
Improved sanitation and the hepatitis A vaccine are the
most effective ways to combat the disease.
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Air Pollution
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Parts of respiratory system 44
Upper respiratory system:-1] Nasal cavity
2] Trachea
Lower respiratory system:-1] Bronchial tubes
2] Lungs

Bronchial Bronchiole
Trachea alveoli
tree 0.05cm
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Defence against invasion by foreign material 44

Upper respiratory system:- particle size>=0.5 to 5


micro meter
Filtered by Hairs
Trapped by mucus
Soluble gases
Lower respiratory system:-particle size lesser
Deposition on bronchial walls:-quite larger
Insoluble gases
Asthma 17
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What is asthma?
Asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome
characterized by variable, reversible
airway obstruction and abnormally
increased responsiveness (Hyper
reactivity) of the airways to various stimuli.
Characterised by wheezing, chest tightness, and cough, and results from
widespread contraction of tracheobronchial smooth muscle
(bronchoconstriction), hyper secretion of mucus.
Asthma cont 18
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Causes
1. Indoor allergens (for example house dust mites in
bedding, carpets and stuffed furniture, pollution and
pet dander)
2. Outdoor allergens (such as pollens and molds)
3. Tobacco smoke
4. Chemical irritants in the workplace
5. Air pollution
Asthma cont 19
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Symptoms
1. Common symptoms:-
2. Coughing:-
3. Wheezing:-
4. Difficulty in breathing:
5. Chest tightness:-
Asthma cont 20
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Treatment
1. Bronchodilators
2. Taking anti-inflammatory drugs
3. Taking anti-allergic medications
Emphysema 21
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Basic science:-
Reduces the amount of oxygen that can reach the bloodstream.
It is known from function and often, breathlessness.
Symptoms:-
Shortness of breath.
Coughing occurs as well.
Exhaustion, weight loss, depression, and a fast heartbeat are
other symptoms.
Affected people may develop bluish-grey lips or fingernails.
Treatment Emphysema 22
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No cure.
Medications, therapies, and surgeries .
Bronchodilator.
People with emphysema are often
underweight. Foods rich with vitamins A,
C, and E like fruits and vegetables are
usually recommended.
Bronchitis 23
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The American Lung Association (ALA) defines chronic bronchitis as
the onset of a mucus-producing cough most days of the month,
Symptoms :-
Chronic cough
Lasts longer than three weeks.
Prevents you from sleeping.
Is accompanied by a high fever (above 100.4F).
Produces discoloured mucus or blood.
Causes wheezing or shortness of breath.
Increased respiratory rate
Lung Cancer 24
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Causes :- smoking, exposure to carcinogens.

Symptoms :- If the cancer is located in one of the


bronchi, it can irritate the lining of the bronchus and
cause a chronic cough. The cancerous area may bleed
when a person coughs. Symptoms of lung cancer
include, chronic cough, coughing up blood, wheezing
and chest pain.

Treatment :- Surgery may cure lung cancer. Radiation


therapy in combination with chemotherapy.
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Fact sheet on indoor (household) air pollution 44

Key Facts:
Around 3 billion people cook and heat their homes using open fires
and simple stoves burning biomass (wood, animal dung and crop
waste) and coal.
Over 4 million people die prematurely from illness attributable to
the household air pollution from cooking with solid fuels.
More than 50% of premature deaths among children under 5 are
due to pneumonia caused by particulate matter (soot) inhaled from
household air pollution.
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Fact sheet on indoor (household) air pollution cont 44

Impacts On Health
4.3 million people a year die prematurely from illness attributable
to the household air pollution caused by the inefficient use of
solid fuels (. Among these deaths:
12% are due to pneumonia
34% from stroke
26% from ischaemic heart disease
22% from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
6% from lung cancer.
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Fact sheet on outdoor(ambient)air pollution 44

Key Facts:
88% of the Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health. By
reducing air pollution levels, countries can reduce the burden of
disease from stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, and both chronic
and acute respiratory diseases, including asthma.
Ambient (outdoor air pollution) in both cities and rural areas was
estimated to cause 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012.
Some ose premature deaths occurred in low- and middle-income
countries, and the greatest number in the WHO Western Pacific
and South-East Asia regions.
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Prevention and control of air pollution 44
Methods of controlling gaseous pollutants:
Combustion: This technique is applied when the pollutants are
organic gases or vapours. The organic air pollutants are subjected to
'flame combustion or catalytic combustion' when they are converted to
less harmful product carbon dioxide and a harmless product water.
Absorption : In this method, the polluted air containing gaseous
pollutants is passed through a scrubber containing a suitable liquid
absorbent. The liquid absorbs the harmful gaseous pollutants present
in air.
Adsorption : In this method , the polluted air is passed through
porous solid adsorbents kept in suitable containers. The gaseous
pollutants are adsorbed at the surface of the porous solid and clean
air passes through.
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Prevention and control of air pollution cont 44

Other Methods Of Controlling Air Pollution


Tall chimneys should be installed in factories.
Better designed equipment and smokeless fuels should be used in
homes and industries.
Renewable and non- polluting sources of energy like solar energy,
wind energy, etc. should be used.
Automobiles should be properly maintained and adhere to emission
control standards.
More trees should be planted along roadsides and houses.
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Noise Pollution
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Noise pollution 44

Any unwanted or irritating sound which comes from an external source.


Intensity of sound is measure in Decibel (dB).
Normal level of tolerance is 80 dB.
Sound level above this is considered to be as noise pollution.
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Classification 44

Noise Pollution

Community Occupational
Noise pollution Noise pollution

Non-industrial Industrial

Ex. Aircraft,
Roadway,
Domestic, etc.
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Occupational Pollution 44

The many and varied sources of noise is


industrial machinery and processes
Rotors
Gears
Turbulent fluid flow
Impact processes
Electrical Machines
Internal Combustion Engines
Pneumatic Equipment
Drilling, Crushing, Blasting
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Effects of industrial pollution 44

Sleep Disturbance
Cardiovascular Diseases
Psychiatric Disorder
Endocrine Responses
Temporary or Permanent Deafness
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Sleep Disturbance 44

There is both objective and subjective evidence for


sleep disturbance by noise.
Sleep disturbance is proportional to the amount of
noise experienced.
Objective sleep disturbance is likely to occur if there
are more than 50 noise events per night with a
maximum level of 50 dB.
Increase blood pressure, heart rate and finger pulse
amplitude as well as body movements.
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Cardiovascular Disease 44
Caused by repeated exposure to continuous noise at
levels of at least 85 dB.
Systolic and Diastolic pressure cycle gets disturbed.
(90-120) (60-80)
Sudden Exposure to Noise may stimulate
Catecholamine secretion and precipitate Cardiac
Dysrhythmias.

Dysrhythmia

Tachycardia Bradycardia
(>100Beats) (<60Beats)
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Psychiatric disorder 44
Noise exposure creates annoyance which then leads
on to more serious psychological effects,
The worker readjusts their behavior in noisy conditions.
The interaction between the person and their
environment is disturbed.
Symptoms-
Headaches
Argumentativeness and changes in mood
Anxiety
Restless nights
Being tense and nervous.
Lack of Concentrations
Fatigue
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Endocrine responses to noise 44

Endocrine glands are a group of glands in the body


which secrete hormones.
cause a specific response in other cells of the body
which are located far away
Exposure to high intensity noise in industry cause
increase in Endocrine secretion.
Ex. Thyroid Gland
Grave diseases (Swelling of eyes & Head)
Increase rate of metabolic activities
Goiter (Swelling of Neck)
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Temporary or Permanent Deafness 44
There are about 25000 hair cells in
our ear which create wave in our ear,
responding to different levels of
frequencies.
With increasing levels of sound the
cells get destroyed, decreasing our
ability to hear the high frequency
sound.
Continued exposure to noise level
above 100 dB is unsafe and may
cause permanent deafness.
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Risk factors by W.H.O. 44

Excess Risk Factor= ( % of people with (% of people with


hearing problem) occupational hearing problem) non-occupational

Sex Exposure 15-29 30-44 45-59 60-69 70-79 80+


level
Male <85 dB 1 1 1 1 1 1
Female <85 dB 1 1 1 1 1 1
Male 85-90 dB 1.96 2.24 1.91 1.66 1.66 1.66
Female 85-90 dB 1.96 2.24 1.91 1.66 1.66 1.66
Male >90 dB 7.96 5.62 3.83 2.82 2.82 2.82
Female >90 dB 7.96 5.62 3.83 2.82 2.82 2.82
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Preventive Measures 44

Selection of Machinery
Maintenance of Machinery
Installation of Barriers
Using Protection Equipment
Exposure Reduction & Rotation of
worker Earmuffs
Hearing Protection (Earmuffs,
Ear-plugs)

Ear plugs
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References :- 44
http://www.medindia.net
http://www.cdc.gov/healthyplaces/healthtopics/airpollution.htm
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK358/
http://www.healthline.com/health/emphysema#Overview
http://www.who.int
http://www.wikipedia.com
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