PreStack Depth Migration (PSDM

)

Where PSDM Stand?
Typical Processing
1. Demultiplex 2. Edit 3. F-K filtering 4. Sort 5. Elevation Statics 6. Deconvolution 7. NMO correction 8. Mute 9. Static corrections 10. Velocity analysis and stack 11. Additional F-K filtering 12. Filtering 13. Migration 14. Zero-phasing 15. Final filter for display

PSDM

PreStack Depth Migration

Where PSDM Stand?
Typical Processing
1. Demultiplex 2. Edit 3. F-K filtering 4. Sort 5. Elevation Statics 6. Deconvolution 7. NMO correction 8. Mute 9. Static corrections 10. Velocity analysis and stack 11. Additional F-K filtering 12. Filtering 13. Migration 14. Zero-phasing 15. Final filter for display

PSDM

PreStack Depth Migration

Critical in areas where there are significant and rapid lateral or vertical changes in velocity that distort images acquired in the time domain.A processing technique that moves seismic reflections to their correct locations in space. PreStack Depth Migration . Eg: The Gulf of Mexico and thrusted parts of the Rocky Mountains.

Results of PSDM PSDM PreStack Depth Migration PSTM .

PreStack Depth Migration PSDM is the current and cutting-edge method that is eagerly practiced The conventional method is PSTM PSDM is preferred as it can produce better quality image in complex structure (salt and fault complexity) PreStack Depth Migration .

PreStack Depth Migration Algorithms Wavefield Extrapolation Migration Kirchhoff PreStack Depth Migration Reverse Time Migration (RTM) Common Azimuth Wavefield Extrapolation Migration Beam Migration Enhanced Migration Amplitude Normalisation PreStack Depth Migration .

PSDM vs PSTM PreStack Depth Migration .

Comparison Prestack DEPTH migration Done after PSTM Has better imaging More accurate Can interpret complexity structures More interpretative Prestack TIME migration Image is not clear enough Better lateral resolution Better coherency PSDM is done after PSTM Both needs high quality data PreStack Depth Migration .

Midpoint (km) Midpoint (km) PSTM PSDM PreStack Depth Migration .

PSTM using commercial processing system PreStack Depth Migration .

Image of faults using PSDM PreStack Depth Migration .

Over thrust model of PSTM PreStack Depth Migration .

Over thrust model of PSDM PreStack Depth Migration .

PSTM PreStack Depth Migration PSDM .

PreStack Depth Migration .

PreStack Depth Migration . Clear expressions/images. Reduce structures positioning errors. Precise and accurate seismic solution.Advantages of PSDM Can be used at complex subsurface.

Disadvantages of PSDM More expensive compared to others. Time consuming. Results are not really representative in highly complex tectonic. Requires a good geologically velocity model. Sometimes cannot handle any reliable amplitude data. PreStack Depth Migration .

Reverse Time Migration PreStack Depth Migration .

Pre-Stack Reverse Time Depth Migration Aims to construct an image of subsurface from reflection image recording Base on full wave seismic modelling on numerical grid. Made up 2 processes : + seismic forward modelling + reverse time modelling of shot record (time sample model scheme at their respective position as boundary condition) PreStack Depth Migration .

264 c r ss r t s t is ictur . PreStack Depth Migration .Reverse Time Depth Migration Model r QuickTi ΠH.

264 decompressor are needed to see this picture. Down-going wave field from the source side and Up-going wave field towards the receivers at the same time PreStack Depth Migration .Forward-Reverse Modelling High amplitude attribute in the respective subsurface location QuickTimeΠand a H.

R PreStack Depth Migration .Z Z 2+ Z 1 1 Acoustic Impedance Z = Velocity X Density Z i + 1= Z 1 +R i i i 1 .The Picture at Vertical Incidence Earth Reflection Coefficient R 1= Z 2.

Earth Impedance Reflection Coefficients Wavelet Wavelet Superposition Recorded Trace Seismic Section Forward Process PreStack Depth Migration .

Seismic Section Impedance Reflection Coefficients Wavelet Deconvolved Section Integrated Section Inverse Process PreStack Depth Migration .

Below shows reprocessing and RTM providing better imaging of the pre-salt data. and better imaging and truncations of the sediments on the salt flanks Conventional Migration RTM Migration PreStack Depth Migration .

Complex overburdens.Steep dips . regardless of dip or rugosity PreStack Depth Migration . positioning and amplitudes in complex areas Improved imaging of complex plays .PreStack Migration Comparison Conventional Propagating data downward through a velocity model into the earth Limit by structure Velocity field generate more complex arrival like prism wave that cause noise in image data Reverse Time Migration Propagate both events (downward and upward) through earth model Explicitly handling turning wave and complex propagation wave Allow imaging of poor direct illumination of subsurface More accurate focusing.

Kirchhoff Algorithm PreStack Depth Migration .

What Is Kirchhoff Algorithm Apply integral method Widely used in the industries Accept high angles : 90Û Accept turning waves (more than 90Û) Preserves amplitude PreStack Depth Migration .

w(\. M )U (\. M ))d\1d\ 2 ‡ V (M ) ! Migrated Image at point M w(\.The Equation of Kirchhoff Algorithm V (M ) ! ´´ . M )) ! Time  differentiated seismic data PreStack Depth Migration . M ) ! Migration ‡ eighting Function U (\.X D (.X D (.

The Use Of Kirchhoff Algorithm to better repositioning of data to better imaging accuracy / repositioning improve seismic image at steeply dipping subsurface structures PreStack Depth Migration .

Simplifying Flat Source Common Mid-Point Receiver Bedrock Reflection Point PreStack Depth Migration .

Sometimes. Not Flat! Common Mid-Point PreStack Depth Migration .

The Migration

PreStack Depth Migration

The Upside
Enhance image quality Distinctive subsurface structures Fidelity of the algorithm Good on handling lateral velocity changes

PreStack Depth Migration

The Downside
Migration artifacts Migrate non-primary Damage primary reflections Sensitive to errors in migration velocity Time consuming (3D) High cost

Migration Noise

PreStack Depth Migration

Wavefield Extrapolation Migration PreStack Depth Migration .

What Is W.M A new generation of more advanced algorithms Base on Wave Equation Migration (WEM) Improvement over Kirchhoff method in image quality Implement differential solutions base on downward extrapolation PreStack Depth Migration .E.

Superior Image of W.E.M PreStack Depth Migration .

M PreStack Depth Migration .E.Concept of W.

Finite-difference Explicit solutions Split-step Fourier Implicit solutions PreStack Depth Migration .

E.Concept of W.M PreStack Depth Migration .

Single-arrival Kirchhoff impulse response Which one is µwhich¶? Shot profile migration of WEM PreStack Depth Migration .

multiple arrivals.Propagation Effects Diffraction. amplitude decay in shadow zone PreStack Depth Migration .

Advantages ‡ Can tolerate irregular acquisition geometry ‡ Accurate dips handling up to 90° showing superior imaging ‡ High quality at low frequency ‡ Cost effective PreStack Depth Migration .

Can tolerate irregular acquisition geometry Detailed interpretation of an intensely faulted base salt event PreStack Depth Migration .

Advantages ‡ Can tolerate irregular acquisition geometry ‡ Accurate dips handling up to 90° showing superior imaging ‡ High quality at low frequency ‡ Cost effective PreStack Depth Migration .

PreStack Depth Migration .

Advantages ‡ Can tolerate irregular acquisition geometry ‡ Accurate dips handling up to 90° showing superior imaging ‡ High quality at low frequency ‡ Cost effective PreStack Depth Migration .

Kirchhoff Migration W.M PreStack Depth Migration .E.

Advantages ‡ Can tolerate irregular acquisition geometry ‡ Accurate dips handling up to 90° showing superior imaging ‡ High quality at low frequency ‡ Cost effective PreStack Depth Migration .

Limitation of WEM Relied most on Velocity model Expensive yet preferable PreStack Depth Migration .

Case Study (1) PreStack Depth Migration .

‡ It is due to the presence of salt layers and a thick Mesozoic and Cenozoic cover PreStack Depth Migration .Mona Lisa ‡ Marine and Onshore North Sea Acquisition for Lithospheric Seismic Analysis (MONALISA) ‡ Pre-Permian sedimentary basins (SE North Sea) have been previously interpreted from potential field data but only poorly imaged on seismic sections obtained.

North Sea PreStack Depth Migration .

Solutions Reprocessing using pre-stack depth migration of sections of MONA LISA deep seismic has successfully imaged pre-Permian sequences whose exploration in the North Sea has been historically unknown. The difficulties in seismic imaging. are such as the overburden geology. and the presence of Zechstein salt. PreStack Depth Migration .

Seismic Before and After PSDM PreStack Depth Migration .

Interpretation from PSDM data PreStack Depth Migration .

NBR: near basem Dark grey: Mesozoic section White: Pre-Permian basinLight grey: basement PreStack Depth Migration .Interpretation from PSDM data The interpreted section. The Boundaries.

PreStack Depth Migration . Reprocessing with PSDM of the upper crustal sections seismic gives considerable amounts of new information such as their lithology boundaries and sections.Summary The standard processing at lithospheric scale features can lead to degradation of the seismic information in the upper crust.

Case Study ( ) PreStack Depth Migration .

E. Migration PreStack Depth Migration .PSDM method applied: Kirchhoff PreSDM W.

PreStack Depth Migration .N ‡ Figure 1: Field layout of the 3D seismic survey conducted over the salt structure.

PreStack Depth Migration .Early procedures ‡ Gravity survey detected onshore salt body. oil & gas producing sands were discovered from depths within 3000-10000 ft. ‡ 2D seismic survey conducted-obtain more subsurface information ‡ Wells are drilled.

located near the center of the survey area. ‡ The subsalt reflections are poorly focused and not correctly positioned spatially by the preSTM.‡ Figure 2: 3D prestack time migration (preSTM) section of a crossline. Figure 2: PSTM PreStack Depth Migration .

PSTM Kirchhoff PSDM Figure 2: PSTM ‡ ‡ Figure 3: Kirchhoff preSDM image of the same crossline 66 PreStack Depth Migration .

E.M Figure 3: Kirchhoff PSDM ‡ ‡ Figure 4: The salt flanks exhibit a small improvement compared to the Kirchhoff image.Kirchhoff W. 67 PreStack Depth Migration .

E.Kirchhoff W.M ‡ The Kirchhoff preSDM of an inline section. It is apparent that there is structure beneath the salt body forming a rollover or structural high.900 and 25. highlighting the subsalt depth interval of between 11.500 feet. PreStack Depth Migration . A more enhanced image of the subsalt structure.

Kirchhoff PSDM ‡ The Kirchhoff preSDM image of a crossline shows a very good image of the base salt PreStack Depth Migration .

M PSDM ‡ The W. but also better defined subsalt reflections.E. preSDM image shows not only a good base-ofsalt image.W. PreStack Depth Migration .E.

but as a complementary technology to Kirchhoff. ‡ Wave equation method. ‡ Need to understand the capabilities and limitations of each PSDM method.Summary ‡ The Kirchhoff preSDM method will continue to be the preferred choice for prestack depth imaging. is not as a replacement. PreStack Depth Migration .

Conclusion PreStack Depth Migration .

Conclusion Production depth imaging combines established Kirchhoff technology with new-generation wavefield extrapolation migrations. The two technologies are complementary. PreStack Depth Migration .

& PreStack Depth Migration .

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