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Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic

NorCal Tech 2005 Technical Conference

Level Measurement with Radar and


Ultrasonic
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
NAMES OF MADE BY PPT OF PREPARED

KAYASTH SAGARKUMAR 130140109034


UMESHKUMAR
ANKIT GARWAL 130140109002
ANJALI SHAH 130140109001
MAKADIYA MANSI 130140109041
JAVERI VISMAY 130140109030
MODH DHRUV 130140109049
MODASIYA KRUNAL 130140109048
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
Technologies

Through Air
Radar

Guided Wave
Radar

Ultrasonic
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
How it works

The time it takes for the instruments


signal to leave the antenna, travel to the
product, and return to the antenna is
calculated into distance.
100%
The instrument is spanned according to
the distance the 100% and 0% points
within the vessel are from its reference
point.
The measured distance can then be
converted into the end users desired
engineering unit and viewed on the head
of the instrument or remote display.

0%
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
Process conditions that affect specification of transmitters

How do process conditions affect the


reliability and accuracy of process
level transmitters ?

density (specific gravity)?


dielectric constant?
conductivity?
temperature?
pressure?
vacuum?
agitation?
vapors and condensation?
dust and build up?
internal structures?
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic

Through Air
Radar
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
Radar Technology How it works

Radar is a time of flight measurement.

Microwave energy is transmitted by the


radar.

The microwave energy is reflected off


the product surface

The radar sensor receives the


microwave energy.

The time from transmitting to receiving


the microwave energy is measured.

The time is converted to a distance


measurement and then eventually a
level.
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
Function of an antenna

Signal focusing
reduction of the antenna ringing
optimization of the beam

Signal amplification
focusing of the emitted signal
amplification of the receipt signal

Signal orientation
point at the product surface
minimization of false echo
reflections
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
Radar Technology Why use it?

Radar level measurement


Top mounted
Solids and liquids applications
Non-contact

RADAR is virtually unaffected by the


following process conditions:
Temperature
Pressure and Vacuum
Conductivity
Dielectric Constant (dK)
Specific Gravity
Vapor, Steam, Dust or Air
Movement
Build up (depends on radar
design)
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
Radar Technology - Choice of frequency

Radar wavelength = Speed of light / frequency


l=c / f
47.5mm

Frequency 6.3 GHz


wavelength l = 47.5 mm

11.5mm

Frequency 26 GHz
wavelength l = 11.5 mm

High frequency: Low frequency:

shorter wavelength longer wavelength

narrower beam angle wider beam angle

more focused signal less focused signal

ability to measure smaller vessels ability to measure in vessels with


with more flexible mounting difficult application variables
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
Radar Technology Focusing of Frequency

Comparison of horn diameters that produce the same beam angle


(A shorter wavelength means a smaller antenna for the same beam angle)

Focusing at 6.3 GHz: Focusing at 26 GHz:


Horn size Beam angle Horn size Beam angle
3 38 1.5" 22
4 33 2 18
6" 21 3 10
10 15 4 8

6.3 GHz 26 GHz

5 GHz 10 GHz 15 GHz 20 GHz 25 GHz 30 GHz


Frequency
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
Major Factors in Specifying a Radar - Frequency

Frequency

Choosing a frequency depends on:

Mounting options
Customers 100% point
Vessel dimensions proximity
of connection to sidewall
The presence of foam
Agitated product surfaces
Vapor composition
Vessel internal structures
Dielectric constant (dK)
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
Radar Technology Choosing a frequency

No single frequency is ideally suited for every radar level application.


Low Frequency 6.3 GHz C-band High Frequency 26 GHz K-band

Better Performance with:


Heavy Agitation Small Process Connections
Severe Build-up Very little near zone
Foam Recessed in nozzles
Steam Less susceptible to false echoes
Dust Reduced antenna size
Mist Perfect for small vessels
Dish bottom vessels
Able to measure lower dK
Typical accuracy: +/- 10mm
products without using a
stilling well.

Typical accuracy +/- 3-5mm


Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic

Guided Wave
Radar
(TDR)
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
Guided Wave Radar Measurement

Guided Wave Radar level measurement

Time of Flight
Top mounted
Solids and liquids applications
Contact Measurement

GUIDED WAVE RADAR is virtually unaffected by


the following process conditions:

Temperature
Pressure and Vacuum
Conductivity
Dielectric Constant (dK)
Specific Gravity
Vapor, Steam, or Dust Air Movement
Build up (depends on type of build up)
Foam
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
Principle of Operation

A microwave pulse (2 GHz) is


guided along a cable or rod in a
20 diameter or inside a coaxial
system.

The pulse is then reflected from


the solid or liquid, back to the
head of the unit.

The travel time of the pulse is


measured and then converted to
distance.
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
Application Examples

Installation into the vessel

Installation in bridles without


worry of build-up or
interference from side leg
connections

Ideal for replacement of


displacers
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
Application Examples

Interface Measurement
Oil/Water
Solvent/Water
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
Guided Wave Radar Accuracy & Dead Zones

Typical Accuracies
Cable +/- 5 mm
Rod +/- 5 mm
Concentric Tube +/- 3 mm

Typical Dead Zones or Blocking Distances


Cable
Top 6 inches
Bottom 9.8 inches
includes weight 6

Rod
Top 6 inches
Bottom 0 inches

Concentric Tube
Top: 1.6 inches
Bottom: 0.8 inches
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic

Ultrasonic
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic Level Measurement

Ultrasonic level measurement


Time of Flight
Top mounted
Solids and liquids applications
Non-contact

ULTRASONIC is virtually unaffected by the


following process conditions:
Change is product density (spg)
Change in dielectric constant (dk)
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic Level Measurement How it works

Time of Flight Technology


Short ultrasonic impulses emitted from
transducer
Bursts are created from electrical energy
applied to piezeo electric crystal inside the
transducer
The transducer creates sound waves
(mechanical energy)
With longer measuring ranges a lower
frequency and higher amplitude are needed
to produce sound waves that can travel
farther
The longer the measuring range the
larger the transducer must be
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic Level Technology Advantages

Can be mounted in plastic stilling wells

Narrow beam angles minimize effect of


obstructions

Swivel flange available for applications with


angles of repose

Familiar technology throughout the industry,


therefore, often a trusted technology throughout
the industry

Cost-effective
Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic Level Technology When to use it

Vessels with products whose characteristics


remain constant
Water
Bulk solids

Storage Vessels
Where repeatability is not critical

Typical Accuracy +/- 5-10 mm


Level Measurement with Radar and Ultrasonic
Questions?

Questions?