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Heat transfer concerns the loss of energy from the

combustion chamber gases, which reduces the amount of
piston work, and another aspect relates to the durability of
engine components exposed to high temperature gases.
In modern engine design, the amount of cooling applied
should be optimized with respect to the balance between
these two considerations, i.e. every effort should be made
to keep engine cooling at the minimum level
compatible with the temperature limits of the material
employed .
About 35% of the total chemical energy that enters an
engine as fuel is converted to useful crankshaft work, and
about 30% of the fuel energy is carried away from the
engine to the exhaust.
The heat to coolant generally amounts to about a quarter
to one third of the chemical energy supplied in the fuel.
About half of that is the result of heat transfer with the
cylinder, and most of the reminder passes through the
exhaust port walls from the out flowing charge, if these
walls are not insulated.
Necessity of engine cooling
The peak gas temperature during the combustion process
of an IC engine is of the order of 2500 k.
The temperature of the inside surface of the cylinder walls
is usually kept below 200C to prevent deterioration of the
oil film.
High temperature of the lubricating oil may result in
physical and chemical changes in the oil and cause
wear and sticking of the piston rings, scoring of the
cylinder wall. It is therefore necessary to provide
cooling for the walls of combustion space.
High temperatures are produced in the cylinders of the engine
as a result of the combustion process.
A large portion of the heat generated in the combustion
chamber is transferred from combustion gases to the cylinder
head and walls, and piston and valves.
Heats absorbed by these components increase their
The temperature distributions are uneven causing uneven
expansion of various engine parts, hence causing thermal
stresses in the components of the engine.
High thermal stresses cause fatigue and cracking of the
components. Therefore, the temperature must be kept less than
about 400 C for cast iron and about 300 C for aluminum
The temperature of the cylinder head must also be kept
below 220 c. If the cylinder head temperature is high,
this may lead to overheated spark- plug electrodes
causing pre-ignition in S I engines.
The cylinder head temperature to such an extent causes
engine failure or complete loss of power may result as
density of incoming air is reduced.
In short to safeguard lubrication, to reduce thermal
stresses, to avoid pre-ignition and to improve volumetric
efficiency of engine cooling is necessary
Disadvantages of overcooling
Excessive cooling is undesirable for the following:
Starting of the engine will be difficult at low temperatures.
The engine must be kept sufficiently hot to ensure smooth and
efficient operation.
Vaporization of the fuel will be reduced at low temperatures,
preventing formation of a homogeneous mixture with air. It
may cause poor combustion and also increase fuel
Excessive cooling provided to the combustion chamber walls
will lower the average combustion gas temperature and
pressure and reduce the work per cycle transferred to the
piston. Thus, the specific power and efficiency are reduced
by excessive cooling.
Friction will be increased because of higher viscosity of
lubricating oil at lower temperatures.

There are mainly following two methods / systems of

cooling in I.C. engines:

1) Air cooling

2) Water liquid cooling

1. Air-Cooling System

Here fins are cast on the cylinder head and cylinder barrel which
provide additional conductive and radiating surface. The fins are
arranged at right angles to cylinder axis. The number and
dimensions should be adequate to take care of the surplus heat
"Small engines" and engines whose application gives
extreme importance to weight such as "aircraft engines".

"Industrial engines" where there can be a strong objection

to use of water as coolant.
2. Water / Liquid Cooling System
In this method of cooling engines, the cylinder walls and heads
are provided with jackets through which the cooling liquid can
The heat is transferred from cylinder walls to the liquid by
convection and conduction.
The coolant to be employed in liquid cooling a system should
have the following characteristics:
Low freezing temperature
A high boiling point
A large latent heat of vaporization
Easily and cheaply available
In addition, some oils are also used as anti-freeze solutions.
Types of Liquid Cooling
Various methods are used for circulating water around the
cylinder and cylinder head.

Thermo siphon cooling

Forced or pump cooling
Cooling with thermostatic regulator
Pressurized water cooling
Evaporative cooling.
Thermo-syphon cooling
The thermo siphon cooling system cannot be used a high
output engines due to its inability to meet the requirement of
large flow rates of water.
Limitation of thermosiphon-cooling system:
The cooling depends only on the temperature and is
independent of the engine speed.
The rate of circulation is slow and insufficient. The
circulation of water starts only after the engine has
become hot enough to cause thermo siphon action
This system requires that the radiator be above the engine
for gravity flow of water to engine.

Engine cooling
Forced or pump cooling:
In this system, a pump is used to cause positive circulation of
water in the water jacket. Usually the pump is belt driven from
the engine.
The main advantage of forced cooling is that cooling is ensured under
all conditions of operation.
The cooling is not temperature dependent. Under certain
circumstances, the engine may get overcooled.
The cooling requirement, while moving uphill, is increased
because more fuel is burnt. The coolant circulation, however, is
reduced which may lead to overheating of the engine.
The cooling ceases when the engine stops. This is undesirable
since cooling must continue till the temperature is reduced to
normal values.
Comparison of thermo siphon and forced cooling
Forced system Thermo-siphon system

Circulation of water by centrifugal Circulation of water by natural convection.

Pump, belt driven from the engine. No pump is used.
Cooling is independent of Cooling depends only upon the temperature,
2 temperature, but depends upon the and is independent of engine speed.
engine speed.
Rate of cooling is fast Rate of cooling is slow and insufficient
The circulating water pump needs Simple automatic, and no maintenance is
4 maintenance required
Cooling is ensured under all The circulation of water starts only after the
5 conditions of operation engine has become hot enough to cause
thermo-syphon action.
Radiator position with respect to The system requires that the radiator be
6 engine not restricted, can be placed placed above the engine for gravity flow of
anywhere water to engine.

7 It is costly It is cheaper
The functions of the radiator are to reject coolant heat to the
outside air.
The cooling effect in a radiator is achieved by dispersing the
heated coolant into fine streams through the radiator matrix so
that relatively small quantities of coolant are brought in contact
with large metal surface areas, which in turn are cooled, by a
stream of air.
It is easier to transfer heat from water to the metal surfaces than
from metal surface to air. For the same metal exposure
surface, the heat transfer from coolant to fins is as much as
seven times faster than the heat transfer from fins to air.
Due to its high specific heat water allows a given amount of
heat transfer at higher mean temperature.
It is process of increasing the density of charge to the engine
and increasing power.
In naturally aspirated engine, the suction is taking place below
the atmospheric pressure. In supercharged engine, the supply of
charge is above the atmospheric pressure. The charge means
either air fuel mixture or air alone. For this a compressor or
blower is used to supply charge under pressure which is driven
either from engine or an exhaust driven turbine. Fuel
consumption is more with supercharged engines. Power and
mechanical efficiency is improved.
Mechanically supercharging system uses engine power to
drive compressor
A gear up is also used to increase the speed of compressor.
Supercharging in SI engines
In racing cars
Aircraft engines
Detonation and pre-ignition tendency

Increased pressure and temperature reduces ignition delay

and increase flame speed.
so super charged SI engines employs low compression
Low CR and increased heat losses due to higher values of
specific heat and dissociation losses they result in high
fuel consumption and lower thermal efficiencies.
Supercharging in CI engines
Increase in temperature and pressure of the intake air
reduces the ignition delay.
Result in better quieter and smoother combustion.
increase in intake air temperature reduces volumetric and
thermal efficiency but the increase in the density due to
pressure compensate for this and inter-cooling is not
necessary expect for highly supercharged engines.
Turbo charging
Turbo charging is a type of supercharging using centrifugal
compressors driven by the exhaust gas turbine. By utilizing the
exhaust energy of the engine it recovers a substantial part of
energy, which would otherwise go waste. We know that about
30% of energy goes waste with exhaust which is used by the
turbine to operate the compressor.
Objectives of Supercharging
30% to 40% more power output
Less weight and size for exiting engine
To compensate low density at high altitude which results in low
power (In aero plane)
To compensate breathing problem at high speed
Advantages of turbo charging over supercharging
Exhaust noise is reduced
No gearing arrangement is needed.
Compact and light
Improved overall efficiency as exhaust energy is used,
Charge automatically adjusts with the load. As load increase,
turbine power also increases and more compressors out put.
Special manifold for exhaust
Fuel injection system should be modified
Highly filtered air is needed as it affects the high temperature
turbine blades
Difficult to obtain good efficiency over a wide range of
Drawbacks of carburetor
Non-uniform mixture to different cylinders, (air and fuels has
different inertia)
Less volumetric efficiency due to restriction in manifold
Wetting of manifold
Less response to load
Foaming of fuel
Difficult to provide correct A/F ratio at all speed
Float level change of fuel while taking a turn or upside down
position like plane
Advantages of fuel injections
High Fuel economy
Less pollution
Better acceleration or more throttle response
More power
Less detonation
Higher compression ratio
Better fuel distribution to different.
High cost
Skilled labor for maintenance
Costly maintenance
Classification of Petrol Injection
By Control devices
Mechanical fuel injection
Electronic fuel injection
By Location of injection
Throttle body Single injector for all cylinder (TBI)
Port injection Just above inlet valve (MPFI)
Direct injection In combustion chamber.(GDI)
By time of injection
By no. of injectors
Single Port
Multi Port
Fuel injections are used are either Mechanical or electronic. Now a
days electronic type is used. It can also be Continuous or timed
Continuous injection
In continuous type, fuel is continuously supplied into air
stream to the engine .
The fuel is drawn from the fuel tank by fuel pump and
delivered at a low pressure to the main metering system
which regulates the amount of fuel according to the inlet
manifold and atmosphere pressure.
In this method has the advantage of high atomization and
uniform mixture to all cylinders. Only require one pump
and one injector.
Timed injection system
In timed type, a measured quantity of fuel is delivered into
each cylinder during the induction period at a definite time
over a definite period.
Multiple plunger type or individual plunger is used for the
Fuel can either be injected directly into cylinder during
suction stroke or compression stroke for a definite time
and period.
If injection is during suction stroke, low pressure is
enough otherwise fuel is under pressure is injected
towards end of compression stroke.
Low pressure single pump: In this system there is single
pump unit, which delivers fuel under pressure (3.5 to 7
bars) to a rotating metering distributor, purpose of which
is to deliver the metered quantity of fuel to each injector in
The fuel supply is regulated by engine speed, inlet
manifold vacuum, atmosphere pressure and temperature
etc. In place of rotating distributor, a single pump with
injector for each cylinder is used.
MPFI System (Multi point fuel injection)
Multi-point fuel injection injects fuel into the intake port just upstream of

the cylinder's intake valve, rather than at a central point within an intake


MPFI (or just MPI) systems can be sequential, in which injection is timed to

coincide with each cylinder's intake stroke; batched, in which fuel is

injected to the cylinders in groups, without precise synchronization to any

particular cylinder's intake stroke; or simultaneous, in which fuel is injected

at the same time to all the cylinders. The intake is only slightly wet, and

typical fuel pressure runs between 40-60 psi.

Many modern fuel injection systems utilize sequential

MPFI; however, in newer gasoline engines, direct

injection systems are beginning to replace sequential ones.

It can either mechanically or electronically operate. At the

same time it can also continuous or timed type injections

as explained above.
Air Induction system
Air line is with air filter, air flow meter or manifold
absolute pressure sensor, temperature sensor, throttle valve
and its sensor and auxiliary fuel spray system.
Air flows through the air filter past the air flow meter
designed to generate a voltage signal which is dependent
on air flow.
A cold start magnetic injection valve is fitted just behind
the throttle valve to inject additional fuel for cold start.
An idle Air Control valve is fitted to supply additional air
whenever necessary. Throttle valve is equipped with
potentiometer to find the position of throttle.
Electronic Control Module (ECM)
The operating data like air pressure, temperature, throttle
position, speed, coolant temperature and cam shaft
position etc are measured at different location of the
engine by sensors and then transmitted electrically to the
ECM, which computes and give signal to various
operating mechanism like pump, igniter, injector.
It also includes a self-Diagnosing system to find out the
troubles with various components.
Also ECM will take control, if any part of system is goes
out of working to avoid failure
Fuel delivery system
Electrically driven pump draws fuel from the fuel tank and
forces it through filters into pressure lines which is fitted with
pressure regulator and maintain the constant pressure.

Various Sensor are used in ECM

IAT (Intake Air temperature sensor)
MAP (Manifold absolute pressure sensor)
TPS (Throttle position sensor)
ECT (Engine coolant temperature)
CKP (Crank shaft position Sensor)
CMP (Cam shaft position sensor)
VSS (Vehicle speed sensor)
Q2 (Oxygen Sensor)
Air is drawn into the cylinder during the suction stroke and
compressed to a very high pressure and fuel is injected towards
the end of compression stroke and ignites the charge.
Temperature after compression about 500 C to700 C
Pressure - 30 to 70 bar
Injection period - 0.001 to 0.002 sec, depend
on speed
Compression Ratio - 12 to 20
Injection pressured - 100 to 200 bar
Injection period - About 25 of Crank shaft
Function of injection system or requirements of
Correct quantity should be inspected
Correct period should be maintained
Correct rate of fuel injection
To Atomize, distribute equally into chamber
Injection start and stop abruptly
Weight and size of injection system should be minimum
Correct spray pattern
1. Air injection
2. Solid injection (3 types)
Individual pump and injector
Common rail system
Distributor system
The fuel is metered and pumped
to the fuel valve by a camshaft
driven fuel pump.
The fuel valve is opened by mean
of a mechanical linkage operated
by Camshaft, which controls the
timing of injection.
The fuel valve is also connected
to a high-pressure airline from a
multistage compressor that
supplies air at a pressure of about
60 to 70 bar.
When the fuel valve is opened,
the blast of compressed air
sweeps the fuel along with it and
well atomized fuel spray is sent
to the chamber
Individual Pump with Nozzle System
Each cylinder has a separate pump and injector.
Pump pressurizes the fuel and metering the fuel and
timing of fuel
Injection is operated by high-pressure fuel, no separate
Most commonly used
Pump is operated by Camshaft and there is separate
plunger for each cylinder.
It is also called jerk pump
Individual Pump with Nozzle System
b) Common rail system (CRDI)
High pressure pump build pressure and pumps into common rail and
maintain constant pressure with relief value
The quantity and timing of injection are controlled by fuel valves and not by
injection pump. Only one high pressure pump is used other than feed pump.
The fuel pressure is independent of engine speed
Pump driven by cam.
Pressure in the system 100 to 300bar according to the compression ratio
Very simple and less maintenance
One pump is necessary
It fulfills the various requirement of engine of different load and speed.
1. Leakage due to high pressure
2. Accurate design is needed.
c) Distributor System
Only one pumps with separate injectors for cylinders.
Distributor selects the cylinder to receive the fuel.
Pump- pressurizes and meters the fuel. Also the timing of
fuel supply.
The same injects fuel to all cylinders.
Cost of fuel injection system is less.
Atomization, penetration and distribution of fuel in the
cylinder are largely depending upon fuel injector design.
It consists of needle valve and a nozzle body.
A spring-loaded needle valve pressed against its seat keeps
valve closed.
High-pressure fuel comes from pumps will exerts
sufficient pressure so as to lift the nozzle valve from its
seat against spring force and injects the fuel into
combustion chamber.
A good nozzle should atomize the fuel uniformly so as to
maintain proper injection angle and direction.
Only one hole centrally of about 0.2 mm.
Used with open combustion chamber.
Spray angle varies from 5 to 15

Since spray angle less very high pressure is needed for
atomization, penetration & mixing
High velocity is required
Less mixing since spray angle is less
Tendency to dribble
Extensively used in Automobile
No. of holes varies 4 to 18
Size of hole = 0.25 to 0.35 mm
Hole angle 20 to 45

Good Mixing.
Good Atomization

Holes liable to clog.
More costly
Very high pressure is required
Chance of Dribbling
Nozzle valve is extended to form a pin or pintle
Either cylindered or conical
Spray angle about 60
No Dribbling
When the valve lifts, the pintle partially blocks the orifice at the

Self cleaning type
No carbon deposit
Good Atomization

Distribution and penetration is poor
Not suitable for open combustion chamber.
It is a pintle type, which has an auxiliary hole.
In order to improve the cold starting, a small quantity
of fuel through the additional hole is sending in the up
stream direction slightly before main injection. The
needle does not lift fully at starting and almost
injection is through the additional hole.
Good cold starting performance.
Auxiliary hole to choke
Poor injection characteristics