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Castigliano theorm

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Materials

Tuesday, Sep. 21, 2004

Strain Energy

Castiglianos Theorem

Overview of Loads ON and IN

Structures / Machines

Structural Analysis

Forces &Moments & Moments (at supports) & Moments

entire structure Cutting Surface

Flow Lines from Part of Structure

Applied to Reaction

Forces

Equilibrium Eqs.

Concentrated (3 in 2D, 6 in 3D)

FBD of Each

Component from

Forces through Depend on Location&

Contact Surfaces Orientation of

Distributed / Cutting Plane

Pressures Equilibrium Eqs.

(3 in 2D, 6 in 3D)

Shear Force &

Bending Moment

Diagrams

Overview of Various Stress Patterns

Stresses- from Distribution of

Internal Forces over Given

Cross-Section

Compression of of Long Beams to Transverse Forces or Prismatic Shafts

Straight Bars or

Lap Joints

of Stresses Centroid of Cross-section Result (Add-up) in torsional stress about

Shear Force in the centroid results in the

Cross-Section internal torque in cross-section

Sigma=F/A over from Neutral Axis Neutral Axis Depends on Linear distribution, with

Sigma=(My)/I Shape of Cross-section Max. at the outer edge:

(Normal Axial Stresses) Tau(y)=(V*MomentArea)/(I*Z(y)) Tau=(Tr)/J

Direct Shear in Lap Joints Maximum may not be Prismatic Shafts -Torsion

Tau =P/A The Resultant of at neutral axis Leads to Warping

Bending Stresses Tau_max=(coef.)Tau_average Membrane Analogy:

is the Bending Moment Tau_max=T/Q, Theta=(TL)/KG

in the Cross-section

Power-Torque-RPM Relations:

Maximum at top Zero at top hp=(Tn)/63,025

or bottom, and zero and bottom edges kw=(Tn)/9549

at neutral axis

IF Plane of Transverse Forces

passes through the SHEAR

CENTER, NO Torsion occurs

Problem No.2 in Exam

z No.1 M y z ( x dA)

z z z z

zA

xz (z)

x

y y xz

x

x y

x(z)

x x x

My x V xz dA

V Superposition of stresses from applied loads V and H A

V

z x(x) M z y( x dA) z

z H xy dA

z A

Mz xy(y)

A

y

x x x

H

y H y

y

x

x x

Elastic Deformation for Different

Types of Loadings (Stress Patterns)

Straight uniform elastic bar loaded by

centered axial force (Figs. 2.1, 2.2, 2.3)

Similar to linear spring in elastic range

F ky, y f l f l0

Force-induced elastic deformation, f must

not exceed design allowable: failure is

predicted to occur if (FIPTOI): f-max>f-allow

Spring Constant (Rate) for elastic bar

k (lb / in ) F / y F / f

Normalize Force-deflection curve to obtain

Engineering Stress-Strain Diagram

F f

, f , so that :

A0 l0

F A0 A0 E

k ax , where : E f ( Hooke' s Law)

f l0 f l0

Elastic Deformation for Different

Types of Loadings (Stress Patterns)

Torsional moment produces torsional shearing strain,

according to Hookes Law: = G

Shear strain, , is change in initially right angle (radians)

Angular deflection (twist angle) for elastic members:

TL

, where : K J for cylindrica l members

KG

Beam bending loads cause transverse deflections:

Deflection (elastic) curve obtained by integrating twice the

governing differential equation and using the boundary conditions:

d 2 y ( x) M z ( x)

2

, where " M " from bending moment diagram

dx EI zz

See Table 4.1 for deflection curves of several common cases

Stored Strain Energy (Potential

Energy of Strain)

From Work done by external forces or moments

over corresponding displacements

Recovered by gradual unloading if elastic limit of the material

is not exceeded

Displacements (deformations) are LINEAR functions of

external loads if Hookes Law applies

Generalized forces include moments, and generalized

displacements include rotations (angular displacements)

Strain energy per unit volume for differential cubic

element (Fig. 4.11)

U x x z z

u

y y

dxdydz 2 2 2

Total Strain Energy Formulas for

Common Stress Patterns

Members with uniform (constant) geometry material

properties along the longitudinal axis

Tension and Direct Shear

F F F FL F 2L

U tens Fave f ( ) ( ) , where A is cross sec tional area

2 k ax 2 AE 2 AE

P P P PL P2L

U dir shear Pave s ( ) ( ) , where A and L refer to the contact surface

Torsion 2 k dir shear 2 AG 2 AG

T T T TL T 2L

U tor Tave f ( ) ( )

2 ktor 2 KG 2 KG

Pure bending M M M ML M 2L

U bend M ave yf ( ) ( )

2 kbend 2 EI 2 EI

Strain energy associated with transverse shearing stresses is

complex function of cross-section and negligible in comparison to

bending strain energy (except for short beams)

Integrations are required if geometry or material

properties vary along the member (Table 4.6, where Q

Castiglianos Theorem

Energy method for calculating displacements in a

deformed elastic body (Deflection equations - Table 4.6)

At ANY point where an external force is applied, the displacement

in the direction of that force is given by the partial derivative of the

total strain energy with respect to that force.

Example of simple tension in uniform prismatic bar:

dU d F 2L FL

( ) f

dF dF 2 EA EA

If no real force is applied at the point of interest, a DUMMY

force is applied at that point, and then set equal to zero in the

expression of the corresponding derivative of the total strain

energy.

Applicable also to calculating reactions at the supports

of statically redundant (undetermined) structures.

Set partial derivative equal to zero since there is no displacement

Summary of Example Problems

Simply supported beam loaded by concentrated load, P at mid-

span and moment M at left support

Superposition of cases 1 and 4 in Table 4.1

Example 4.7 Beam deflections and slopes

Determine reactions and expressions of the bending moment on

both sides of mid-span (from equilibrium)

Use deflection equations in Table 4.6 for mid-span deflection and

angular displacement (slope of deflection curve) at left support

Apply dummy moment at mid-span to calculate angular deflection

(slope of deflection curve) at mid-span

Given: L1=10 in, L2=5 in, P=1000 lb, s=1.25 in, d=1.25 in

Find: Use Castiglianos theorem to find deflection y0 under load P

Summary of Textbook Problems

Problem 4.24, Castiglianos Theorem

Select coordinate system and identify the elements of

the total strain energy

Bending of square leg of support bracket

Torsion of square leg of support bracket

Bending of the round leg of support bracket

Differentiate the expression of U with respect to

load P, to find deflection y0

Stiffness properties of steel: E=30x106psi, G=11.5x106psi

Use Case 3 in Table 4.4 to find the geometric rigidity

parameter, K, of the square leg, K1= 0.34

Substitute all numerical values to obtain: y0 = 0.13 inches

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