You are on page 1of 20



1 Introduction

2 Power Fuses

3 Method Of Determining Co-ordinated Fusing

4 Expulsion Fuse

5 Distribution Fuses

6 Types of RMU Positions

7 Safety Precaution in Switching RMU

8 Conclusion

Various types of instruments are employed in the power system for various purposes. These include monitoring,
measurement, indication, protection etc.
These equipment cannot be safely connected directly to the system at such high voltage and current.
For example if we are to connect a voltmeter to measure 330kV transmission voltage, we will need a meter
with such voltage capacity. This will be very difficult, expensive, big and will be dangerous should there be an
insulation breakdown.
Now consider an ammeter to be connected to 2000A circuit. The cross-sectional area of the cable will be quite
large with the attendant losses and safety concerns.
To forestall this, instrument transformers are used to bring down the voltage and current that can easily and
safely be used for purposes of metering
Instrument transformers are a category of transformers that are used to isolate high current and voltage in
power systems to a standardized lower current and voltage to enable metering by measuring instruments. They
act as a buffer between the high voltage or high current circuits and the measuring equipment used for
measuring electricity in power systems.
The primary function of Instrument transformers is to step down system voltage and current to standardized
levels so that the metering equipment is safeguarded from high current and voltages running in the system.
The most common rating used by metering instruments are 1A/5A & 110V/120V as the case maybe. In a
modern power system, the primary winding of an instrument transformer is connected to the high voltage or
high current circuit while the metering instrument is connected to the secondary circuit.
Advantages of Instrument Transformer
1. The large voltage and current of AC Power system can be measured by using small rating measuring
instrument i.e. 5 A, 110 120 V.
2. By using the instrument transformers, measuring instruments can be standardized. Which results in
reduction of cost of measuring instruments. More ever the damaged measuring instruments can be replaced
easily with healthy standardized measuring instruments.
3. Instrument transformers provide electrical insulation between high voltage power circuit and measuring
instruments. This reduced the electrical insulation requirement for the measuring instruments and protective
circuits brings about reduced cost and also protects operators from the hazards of handling high voltage
4. Several measuring instruments can be connected through a single transformer to power system.
5. Due to low voltage and current level in measuring and protective circuit, there is low power consumption in
measuring and protective circuits.
Instrument Transformers are primarily categorized into two types

1. Current Transformers (CT)

2. Potential or Voltage Transformers (PT/VT)

Current Transformer

This is a type of instrument transformer that is designed to produce a proportional amount of current
in its secondary terminal compared to the primary.
Note that voltage is not significant as the primary voltage is very negligible. This is because most
common CTs used in our circuit have designated primary side P1 and P2 on the terminals that are so
close that the potential difference across the two terminals will be very negligible.
This is a type of instrument transformer that is designed to produce a proportional amount of current
in its secondary terminal compared to the primary.
Note that voltage is not significant as the primary voltage is very negligible. This is because most
common CTs used in our circuit have designated primary side P1 and P2 on the terminals that are so
close that the potential difference across the two terminals will be very negligible.

Current Transformer
Current Transformer
A C.T functions with the same basic working principle of electrical power transformer.
In an electrical power transformer or other general purpose transformer, the load determines the
secondary current. The secondary current itself determines the primary current.
However in the case of a CT, the primary current determines the secondary current that merely flows
through the load connected to the CT. This load is very negligible compared to the primary current.
But in case of CT, if the load is disconnected, the primary is still the system current which may be far
more than the magnetizing current. In fact this is why the secondary terminals must not be left open
circuited otherwise there may be explosion.
When CT secondary terminals are not to be connected, they must be shorted out.
So current through its primary is nothing but the current flows through that power line. The primary
current of the CT, hence does not depend upon whether the load or burden is connected to the
secondary or not or what is the impedance value of burden. Generally CT has very few turns in
primary whereas secondary turns is large in number.
NP IP = NS IS and EP NS = ES NP . These are common simple equation you found in C.T related

Where: p and s denote primary and secondary

E - Voltage
I - Current
N - Number of turns.
Current Transformers can be classified in a variety of ways. The following are the major
1.Depending upon the type of construction
1. Depending on the location of installation
1. Depending on the application
Split core
1. Depending on the location in the circuit
1.Depending upon the type of insulation
Main C.T.
Dry type
Auxiliary C.T
Oil impregnated paper
1.Depending upon the location of the
secondary core and winding.
Tank type or dead tank
Inverted type or live tank
Insulator type or cross connected type
Bushing Current Transformers

Outdoor Current Transformer

Ring type current
Ring Type Metering
Current Transformer

Insulated Current
Interposing Current Transformer Indoor type current transformers Transformer
Current Transformers Terminologies
Accuracy Limit Factor (ALF)
The accuracy limit current is the highest primary current at which a current transformer still
meets the specified requirements as regards total error. The accuracy limit factor is the ratio
of the accuracy limit current to the rated primary current.The standardized accuracy limit
factors are 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30.

Instrument Security Factor (ISF)

The rated instrument security factor is the smallest primary current at which an instrumentation
core exhibits a current error of 10%.
The Instrument Security Factor ISF is the ratio of the rated instrument safety current to rated
primary current.
Knee point voltage (Vk)
This is the sinusoidal e.m.f of rated frequency applied to the secondary terminals of the C.T., with all
other windings being open circuited, which when increased by 10% causes the exciting current to
increase by 50% or more. This is illustrated below:

Rated Primary and Secondary Currents

These are the values of the primary and secondary current on which the performance of the current
transformer is based. Standard values of primary currents are: 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 75, 50, 100,
150, 200, 300, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1500, 2000, 3000, 4000 and above.
Current Transformers Rating Plate

The selection of the primary current of a C.T. shall always be adopted as closely as possible to the
full load or rated current of the installation by rounding off to the next higher standard. However the
C.T must be capable of continuously carrying the maximum expected current in service. It is
advisable to consider a permitted overload of 20% of the full load current while deciding the rated
Current Transformers Advantages and Disadvantages

The following are the advantages and disadvantages of CTs with 5A and 1A secondary currents.

The number of turns required on the secondary side is less for a 5A C.T. than for a 1A C.T. for a
given primary current.
A thicker gauge wire is required for a 5A C.T than for a 1A C.T.
Both the above factors contribute to the cost reduction of a 5A C.T. when compared to a 1A C.T.
Since the number of turns is less for a 5A C.T, the voltage induced on the secondary side during
secondary saturation or secondary open circuit is less when compared to a 1A C.T.

The lead burden, however, becomes excessive for a 5A C.T since the same is proportional to the
product of the square of the current and resistance of the lead wire. The lead burden in a
1A CT. will be very low.
In view of the reduced number of secondary turns in a 5A C.T., it is difficult to provide for turns
compensation to design and manufacture low current higher accuracy class CTs.
However in a 1A C.T. it is possible to achieve the desired accuracy class because of the
increased number of turns and by providing compensating turns.
The internal resistance of a 5A C.T. is comparatively less ( 1 ohm) when
compared to that of 1A C.T. (Generally 3 to 12 ohms)
Case Study
A case study of Estimation of Burden, Knee Point Voltage, Accuracy Class etc of a Protective Current
Requirement of a C.T. to protect a 15 MVA, 132/33 KV Delta/Star connected transformer.
Data available
% Impedance of Transformer = 10
Fault level at 132KV side = 1400 MVA

Transformer full load current per phase

= 15 x 106_____
3 x 132 x 103
= 65.61 A
Hence select primary current = 100 A
i.e. Ip = 100 A
Select secondary current Is as 5A. A 5A C.T secondary has a winding resistant of less than 1.0 ohm.
A typical value may be chosen as 0.601 ohms.

(a) Distance from C.T to Relay control panel as 100 metres and C.T. secondary leads of 10 sq
mm. (RL = 0.1627 ohms for 100 metres)
(b) Connected relays are GEC CDG 11 over-current and earth fault relays with VA burden of 1.8
and 4 respectively.
Current Transformers Analysis

Transformer with two secondary windings

Transformer with one secondary winding whic

has an extra tapping
Voltage Transformer

This is a type of instrument transformer that is designed to produce a proportional amount of voltage
in its secondary terminal compared to the primary.
Note that here current is not significant as the primary current is very negligible because the load
called the burden is also very small. Remember, V1I1=V2I2
The VTs are used as step down transformers. Note that for voltage step down, the primary winding
has more turns than the secondary windings. Hence there more turns in the primary windings of a VT
than on the secondary windings.
Note also that while the primary voltage of the VT is rated depending on the voltage to be measured
but the secondary voltage is 110V.

The ratio of the primary rated voltage to the secondary rated voltage is called the transformation
The power rating of the VT is dependent on the maximum burden in VA it can deliver within a
specified limit of error. The instruments to be connected are also have VA ratings which when added
up must not exceed the rated VA of the VT.
This contrasts with the power transformer where allowable temperature rise must not be exceeded.
The VT
Voltage Transformer Errors

Just as there is no ideal power transformer, there is no ideal VT. Hence the following errors:

1. Voltage Ratio Error:

Ideally, the system voltage Vp should be equal to the primary voltage of the VT.
If, the voltage across the secondary terminals of the VT is Vs and, the voltage ratio of the VT is KT then
Vp/Vs =KT

However, in practice, the Vs measured across the terminals of the secondary windings multiplied by
the transformation ratio is less than the system voltage.
The shortfall or the difference is the transformation error.
This can be stated as a percentage as:

The reasons for this error:

This is because of voltage drop due to the resistance and inductance in the primary winding.
The induced voltage also drops due to the resistance and inductance of the secondary windings.
Voltage Transformer Errors

2. Phase Error or Phase Angle Error in Potential or Voltage Transformer

The angle at which the secondary voltage differs in phase with system voltage and this is
measured in minutes.
The two errors above increase with the burden connected to the VT.

Rated Burden of a VT
This is the total VA burden (from all the instruments namely voltmeter, watt meter etc) that could be
connected to the secondary winding of the VT without compromising the accuracy of the VT.

The Limiting or the Thermal Rating of a VT

This is greatest burden in VA at which the VT operates continuously without overheating the windings.
Differences between CT and VT
Few differences between C.T. and V.T. are listed below

Current Transformer (C.T.) Voltage Transformer (V.T.)
1 Connected in series with power circuit. Connected in Parallel with Power circuit.
2 Secondary is connected to Ammeter. Secondary is connected to Voltmeter.
Secondary works almost in short circuited Secondary works almost in open circuited
condition. condition.
Primary current depends on power circuit
4 Primary current depends on secondary burden.
Primary current and excitation vary over wide Primary current and excitation variation are
range with change of power circuit current restricted to a small range.
One terminal of secondary is earthed to One terminal of secondary can be earthed for
avoid the insulation break down. Safety.
7 Secondary is never be open circuited. Secondary can be used in open circuit condition.
Some Important Things To Note about VTs and CTs

1. Dont leave unused windings of a CT open circuited. Windings that are not connected to other
instruments must be shorted out. On the other hand, windings of VTs that are not in use should be
left open circuited
2. Use the right class of both the CT and VT. Note that the class for metering is different for the class
for protection. Choose the right for your application.
3. Note the frequency of the CT and VT and ensure they conform with the frequency of the system
where they are connected.

CT and VT Connections
CTs and VTs in use in our networks come in single units only. Hence, for three phase supply, three
units will be used. The primary winding of each VT or CT is connected to a phase ensuring that the
polarity is maintained.
The secondary windings are connected accordingly.

Thank you