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POWER SYSTEM

GROUNDING

Presented To Presented By
Mr. Ashish Shankhwar Saurabh Bharti
14EE43

Under the Guidance


Ms. Vonita Patel
Contents

PURPOSE OF EARTHING
POTENTIAL GRADIENTS
MAINTENANCE
PRECAUTIONSTOBETAKENDURINGRESISTANCE
MEASUREMENTS
Conclusion
PURPOSE OF EARTHING:
PROTECTION OF INSTALLATION.
IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY OF
SERVICE.
SAFTY OF PERSONNEL.
OBJECTIVE OF SOIL RESISTIVITY
MEASUREMENTS:

Estimating the ground resistance of a


proposed sub-station or transmission
tower.
Estimating potential gradients including
step and touch voltages.
Computing the inductive coupling between
neighbouring power and communication
circuits.
Designing cathodic protection systems.
Geographical surveying.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE
SOIL RESISTIVITY:
Type of the soil.
Moisture.
Dissolved salt in water.
Temperature.
Grain size and its distribution.
Seasonal variation.
Artificial treatment.
POTENTIAL GRADIENTS
STEP VOLTAGE
The potential difference between two points on the
earths surface, separated by a distance of one pace, that
will be assumed to be one meter, in the direction of
maximum potential gradient.

TOUCH VOLTAGE
The potential difference between a grounded metallic
structure and a point on the earths surface separated by
a distance equal to the normal maximum horizontal
reach, approximately one meter.
MAINTENANCE
Maintenance of earth-electrodes at power stations and
substations
Records should be kept of the initial resistance of power
station and substation earth-electrode systems and of
subsequent tests carried out. Such tests should be made
periodically to ensure that no serious increase in
resistance occurs. Normally an annual test should
suffice, but local circumstances may justify an increase
or reduction in the intervals between tests in the light of
experience. Where possible earth-electrodes should be
arranged in groups so that they can be disconnected in
turn from the general earthing system for test while
leaving sufficient electrodes in service to provide an
effective connection with earth.
In urban substations it is frequently impossible to make
any effective check on the resistance to general mass of
earth of the electrode system because of the connection
to the metallic sheaths of numerous high voltage and low
voltage cables. In such cases, the earthing connections
within the substations should permit periodical and visual
inspection.
In rural substations, particularly those connected to
overhead high voltage and low voltage lines, greater
reliance needs to be placed on the electrode system,
and it is important that there should be facilities for
testing the resistance of the electrode to general mass of
earth. Normally annual measurements shall be carried
out but local circumstances in the light of experience
may justify increase or decrease in this interval but it
should not be less than once in two years.
PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN DURING
RESISTANCE MEASUREMENTS
There is a possibility of lethal potential existing between a station
ground and a remote ground if a system fault involving the station
ground occurs while ground resistance is being measured. The use
of rubber gloves is advisable while making connections to the test
electrodes. Under no circumstances should the two hands or other
parts of the body of the testing personal should be allowed to
complete the circuit between the points of possible high potential
difference.
An isolated lightning arrester ground should never be tested with the
arrestor in service because of the possible high potential gradient
around the ground connection.
Since the resistivity of the upper soil layers is greatly influenced by
the weather, a day test should be chosen which is free from extreme
weather conditions.
CONCLUSION

The use of long vertical electrodes and


chemically charged ground electrodes
(CCGR) with or without backfills establishes
relatively low ground resistance and ground
impedances which are not subjected to
seasonal and weather variations much.
THANK YOU