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Excreta disposal

Dr.G.Sreenivas
Dept.of Community Medicine
Gandhi Medical College
Public Health Importance
Human excreta is a source of infection
Important cause of environment pollution
Responsibility of society to dispose it safely
Failure to dispose safely leads to severe
threat to public health
Health hazards
Improper excreta disposal causes
Soil pollution
Water pollution
Contamination of foods
Propagation of flies
Burden to community in terms of sickness,
mortality & low expectation of life
Deterrent to social & economic progress
Diseases-improper disposal
Bacterial: typhoid, dysenteries
Viral: hepatitis, diarrhoeas
Helminths: hook worm, ascariasis
Extent of problem-India
74% of population is rural and majority of
them go to fields for defecation
Situation in urban area is equally worse
The solution to the problem is only through
hygienic disposal of human excreta which is
a corner stone of all public health services
HOW THE DISEASE IS CARRIED FROM EXCRETA

FLUID/WATER

FINGERS

FAECES FOOD NEW HOST

FLIES

FIELD/SOIL
Transmission of faecal born diseases

Transmission of diseases to the human host


is prevented by segregation of faeces,
protection of food, personal hygiene, control
of flies.
Sanitation barrier
transmission of faecal-borne diseases

S WATER
A
N
I
T FINGERS
A
T
I
FAECES O FLIES PROTECTED HOST
N

B
A SOIL
R
R
I
E FOOD
R
SANITATION BARRIER

Segregation of excreta by imposing a


barrier is called Sanitation barrier. This
is the most effective step so that the
disease agent can not reach the new
host directly or indirectly
METHODS OF EXCREATA DISPOSAL
Unsewered areas

Service type (conservative)


Non service type (sanitary latrine)
Bore hole latrine
Dug well or pit latrine
Water-seal type of latrines
PRAI
RCA
SULABH
Septic tank
Aqua privy
Latrine suitable for camps & temporary use
Shallow trench/deep trench/pit/bore hole latrines
Sewered areas
Water carriage system &
sewage treatment
Primary treatment
Screening/removal of grit/plain sedimentation
Secondary treatment
Trickling filters/activated sludge process
Other methods
Sea outfall
River outfall
Sewage farming
Oxidation pond
SERVICE TYPE

Night soil is collected from pail or bucket


type of latrines by human agency, and
later disposed by burying or
composting.
DRAWBACKS

Water pollution
Soil pollution
Access to flies
Corrosion of buckets and pans
Recruitment of staff is difficult,
should be replaced by sanitary
latrine
Sanitary latrine

Excreta should not contaminate the ground


or surface water
Excreta should not pollute the soil
Excreta should not be accessible to flies,
rodents, animals & other vehicles of
transmission
Excreta should not create a nuisance due to
odour or unsightly appearance
Borehole latrine

Forerunner of the non-service type of latrine


First introduced by Rockefeller foundation
during 1930s in campaigns of hookworm
control
It consists of a circular hole of 30 to 40 cm
diameter and 4 to 8 m depth
Special equipment auger is used
Cont.,

The hole is lined with bamboo matting or


earthen ware rings to prevent caving of soil.
A concrete squatting plate with a central
opening and foot rests paced over the hole
and an enclosure for privacy
It serves for a family per year
Night soil under goes anaerobic digestion.
Cont.,

MERITS
No need for sweeper for daily removal.

DEMERITS
Small capacity
Auger may not be available.
If the soil is loose it becomes difficult to dig
DUGWELL LATRINE

Introduced first in Singur in West Bengal in


1949 -1950
It is an improved Bore hole latrine
It is a circular pit of 75 cm diameter and 3
to 3.5 depth lined by pottery rings.
A squatting plate at the top with a super
structure
Cont.,
MERITS
No need of auger
Greater capacity
Last for 4 to 5 years per 4 to 5 persons
WATER SEAL LATRINES

It has water seal which prevent access to


flies and escape of odour.
There are two types
P.R.A.I evolved by planning research and
action institute lucknow.
R.C.A. type by research cum action projects
in environmental sanitation of ministry of
health.
FEATURES

LOCATION: It should be away from source


of water supply to prevent contamination.

SQUATTING PLATE or SLAB: It is made


up of an impervious material to keep it clean
and dry. So that it will not facilitate the growth
of hook warm larva.
Dimensions 90cms square, 5cms thickness,
slop inch for drainage of water with
footrests
Cont.,

Pan: Receives the nightsoil, urine and wash


water. The length of pan is 42.5cm. The
width of the front portion of the pan has a
minimum of 12.5cm and the width at widest
portion is 20cm. There is a uniform slope
from front to back of the pan and the pan is
given a smooth finish
Cont.,

Trap: the trap is a bent pipe, about 7.5cm in


diameter and is connected with the pan. It
holds water and provides the necessary
water seal
the water seal provides the access by flies
and suppresses the nuisance from smell
Cont.,

Connecting pipe: when the pit is dug, away


from the squat plate, the trap is connected to
the pit by a sho9rt length of connecting pipe
7.5cm in diameter and at least 1m in length
with a bend at the end
it is used in indirect type and the advantage
with this is that when the pit fills up, a
second pit can be put into operation
Cont.,

Dug well: 75 cm in diameter, 3-3.5m deep


Superstructure: Attractive superstructure
Maintenance: Proper maintenance involves
health education of the people which is very
necessary for the success of any latrine
programme
SEPTIC TANK

It is a water tight masonry tank used for


individual dwelling, small groups of
houses and institutions.
DESIGN: Single chambered or double
chambered.
CAPACITY: 20 to 30 gallons per person
for household with a minimum of 500
gallons.
Septic tank-cont.,

LENGTH: Twice the breadth.


DEPTH: 1.5 to 2 meters.
LIQUID DEPTH: 1.2 meters.
AIR SPACE: 30cms It is the level between
liquid and undersurface of cover.
BOTTOM: Sloping towards inlet end for
retentions of solids.
INLET AND OUTLET:
COVER: Concrete slab with a manhole.
RETENSION PERIOD: 24hrs if it is too small
inadequate treatment too long undue septicity
occurs
Septic tank-cont.,

WORKING: That is purification of sewage by


2 stages
Anaerobic digestion in septic tank proper
Aerobic oxidation out side the septic tank in
the sub soil
Sludge and scum anaerobic digestion
effluent aerobic oxidation
Septic tank-cont.,

MAINTAINANCE: Disinfectants should be


avoided as they are injurious to bacterial flora
of tank.
De sludging should be done as excessive
accumulation interfere with proper working
Newly built tanks first fill with water up to the
outlet then with sludge to provide right type of
bacteria to carry out decomposition process.