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Chapter 2

Raymond Novestreras
Kathleen Fernandez
Lizette Mariano
PARAMETRIC AND STATISTICS

Prepared by: Raymond Novesteras


1.PARAMETRIC
is any numerical or nominal
characteristic of population. It is a
value or measurement obtained from
a population. It is usually referred to
as the true or actual value.
If in the preceding example, the
researcher uses the whole
population (N=1 500), then the
average income obtained is
called a parameter.
2.STATISTICS
Is an estimate of a parameter. It is
any value or measurement
obtained from a sample. If the
researcher.
in the preceding example makes
use of the sample (n=200), then
the average income obtained is
called statistic
KATHLEEN C. FERNANDEZ
BEED 3D
IMPORTANT STATISTICAL TERMS

Population:
a set which includes all
measurements of interest
to the researcher
(The collection of all
responses, measurements,
or counts that are of interest)

Sample:
A subset of the population
WHY SAMPLING?

Get information about large populations

Less costs
Less field time
More accuracy i.e. Can Do A Better Job of Data
Collection
When its impossible to study the whole
population
Target Population:
The population to be studied/ to which the investigator wants to
generalize his results
Sampling Unit:
smallest unit from which sample can be selected
Sampling frame
List of all the sampling units from which sample is drawn
Sampling scheme
Method of selecting sampling units from sampling frame
TYPES OF SAMPLING

Non-probability samples

Probability samples
NON PROBABILITY SAMPLES

Convenience samples (ease of access)


sample is selected from elements of a population that
are easily accessible
Snowball sampling (friend of friend.etc.)
Purposive sampling (judgemental)
You chose who you think should be in the study
Quota sample
NON PROBABILITY SAMPLES

Probability of being chosen is


unknown
Cheaper- but unable to
generalise
potential for bias
PROBABILITY SAMPLES

Random sampling
Each subject has a known probability of being selected

Allows application of statistical sampling theory to results to:


Generalise
Test hypotheses
CONCLUSIONS

Probability samples are the best

Ensure
Representativeness
Precision
METHODS USED IN PROBABILITY SAMPLES

Simple random sampling


Systematic sampling
Stratified sampling
Multi-stage sampling
Cluster sampling
Simple random sampling
TABLE OF RANDOM NUMBERS
684257954125632140
582032154785962024
362333254789120325
985263017424503686
Systematic sampling

Sampling fraction
Ratio between sample
size and population
size
Systematic sampling
CLUSTER SAMPLING
Cluster: a group of
sampling units close to
each other i.e. crowding
together in the same
area or neighborhood
CLUSTER SAMPLING
Section 1 Section 2

Section 3

Section 5

Section 4
Stratified sampling
Multi-stage sampling
Errors in sample

Systematic error (or bias)


Inaccurate response
(information bias)
Selection bias

Sampling error (random error)


STATISTICS
LIZETTE
MARIANO
THE MEANING
OF SAMPLING.
ABOUT SAMPLES

Samples are parts of a


population. For example, you
might have a list of information
on 15 people in BEED 3-D out
of 27people. You can use that
list to make some assumptions
about the entire populations
behavior.
EXAMPLE
THERE ARE TWO MAIN
AREAS:
Probability sampling
Non-probability sampling
PROBABILITY
SAMPLING
uses randomization to select sample members. The probability
of each member being chosen for the sample is known,
although the odds do not have to be equal.
Probability sampling is based on the fact that every member of
a population has a known and equal chance of being selected
FOR EXAMPLE
if you had a population of 27 people in class, each person would have
odds of 1 out of 27 of being chosen. With non-probability sampling,
those odds are not equal. For example, a person might have a better
chance of being chosen if they live close to the researcher or have
access to a computer. Probability sampling gives you the best chance
to create a sample that is truly representative of the population.
NON-PROBABILITY
SAMPLING
uses non-random techniques
(the judgment of the
researcher). This is where you
cant calculate the odds of any
particular item, person or thing
being included in your sample
FOR EXAMPLE
For example, one person could have
a 10% chance of being selected and
another person could have a 50%
chance of being selected. Its non-
probability sampling when you cant
calculate the odds at all.