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Raymond Novestreras

Kathleen Fernandez

Lizette Mariano

PARAMETRIC AND STATISTICS

1.PARAMETRIC

is any numerical or nominal

characteristic of population. It is a

value or measurement obtained from

a population. It is usually referred to

as the true or actual value.

If in the preceding example, the

researcher uses the whole

population (N=1 500), then the

average income obtained is

called a parameter.

2.STATISTICS

Is an estimate of a parameter. It is

any value or measurement

obtained from a sample. If the

researcher.

in the preceding example makes

use of the sample (n=200), then

the average income obtained is

called statistic

KATHLEEN C. FERNANDEZ

BEED 3D

IMPORTANT STATISTICAL TERMS

Population:

a set which includes all

measurements of interest

to the researcher

(The collection of all

responses, measurements,

or counts that are of interest)

Sample:

A subset of the population

WHY SAMPLING?

Less costs

Less field time

More accuracy i.e. Can Do A Better Job of Data

Collection

When its impossible to study the whole

population

Target Population:

The population to be studied/ to which the investigator wants to

generalize his results

Sampling Unit:

smallest unit from which sample can be selected

Sampling frame

List of all the sampling units from which sample is drawn

Sampling scheme

Method of selecting sampling units from sampling frame

TYPES OF SAMPLING

Non-probability samples

Probability samples

NON PROBABILITY SAMPLES

sample is selected from elements of a population that

are easily accessible

Snowball sampling (friend of friend.etc.)

Purposive sampling (judgemental)

You chose who you think should be in the study

Quota sample

NON PROBABILITY SAMPLES

unknown

Cheaper- but unable to

generalise

potential for bias

PROBABILITY SAMPLES

Random sampling

Each subject has a known probability of being selected

Generalise

Test hypotheses

CONCLUSIONS

Ensure

Representativeness

Precision

METHODS USED IN PROBABILITY SAMPLES

Systematic sampling

Stratified sampling

Multi-stage sampling

Cluster sampling

Simple random sampling

TABLE OF RANDOM NUMBERS

684257954125632140

582032154785962024

362333254789120325

985263017424503686

Systematic sampling

Sampling fraction

Ratio between sample

size and population

size

Systematic sampling

CLUSTER SAMPLING

Cluster: a group of

sampling units close to

each other i.e. crowding

together in the same

area or neighborhood

CLUSTER SAMPLING

Section 1 Section 2

Section 3

Section 5

Section 4

Stratified sampling

Multi-stage sampling

Errors in sample

Inaccurate response

(information bias)

Selection bias

STATISTICS

LIZETTE

MARIANO

THE MEANING

OF SAMPLING.

ABOUT SAMPLES

population. For example, you

might have a list of information

on 15 people in BEED 3-D out

of 27people. You can use that

list to make some assumptions

about the entire populations

behavior.

EXAMPLE

THERE ARE TWO MAIN

AREAS:

Probability sampling

Non-probability sampling

PROBABILITY

SAMPLING

uses randomization to select sample members. The probability

of each member being chosen for the sample is known,

although the odds do not have to be equal.

Probability sampling is based on the fact that every member of

a population has a known and equal chance of being selected

FOR EXAMPLE

if you had a population of 27 people in class, each person would have

odds of 1 out of 27 of being chosen. With non-probability sampling,

those odds are not equal. For example, a person might have a better

chance of being chosen if they live close to the researcher or have

access to a computer. Probability sampling gives you the best chance

to create a sample that is truly representative of the population.

NON-PROBABILITY

SAMPLING

uses non-random techniques

(the judgment of the

researcher). This is where you

cant calculate the odds of any

particular item, person or thing

being included in your sample

FOR EXAMPLE

For example, one person could have

a 10% chance of being selected and

another person could have a 50%

chance of being selected. Its non-

probability sampling when you cant

calculate the odds at all.

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