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CHAPTER 3

APOLLO CASTRO
SHEILA MAE VICENCIO
RAYMOND NOVESTERAS
KATHLEEN FERNANDEZ
Collection
of Data

Prepared by : APOLLO R. CASTRO


BEED III-D
Direct
or
Interview Method
The researcher has a direct
contact with the
interviewee.
Indirect Method
This method make use of a
written questionnaire

The questionnaire are


distribute to the respondents
either by personal delivery or
mail.
Registration
Method
This method of collecting
data is governed by law.
Experimental
Method
This method is usually
used to find out cause and
effect relationship.
Presentation
of Data
Data can be presented in
several ways :
Histogram
- A type of bar chart in
which class limits are shown
on x-axis and frequency on y-
axis
Relative Frequency Histogram
- if relative frequency are
shown on Y-axis, a histogram
called a relative frequency
histogram
The Frequency Polygon
- If the mid points of all
classes of a histogram are
connected together, a
frequency polygon is formed.
The Ogive
- when the x-axis represents
the upper limit of each class
and the y-axis represents
cumulative frequencies.
Instruments
Use in
Collecting Data
Questionnaire
- Series of question in written
form
-Indirect Interview
-Widely used tools
Interview
- One to one direct
communication between
researcher and subject for
collection of data
Observation
-Most commonly used in
qualitative research.
2 Types of Observation

Unstructured Observation
- A method of collecting
research data that has both
opponents and proponents.
Structured Observation
- A preparation of record-
keeping forms such as
category system, checklist
and rating scale
Presenting Data
in Textual Form
Prepared by:
Sheilla Mae E. Vicencio
BEED III-D
What is Textual
Presentation of
Data?
Textual presentation data refers
to data presented in written,
paragraph form. The
alternative refers to graphs or
other types of visual charts.
All the data is presented in the form
of texts, phrases, or paragraphs. It
involves enumerating important
characteristics, emphasizing
significant figures and identifying
important features of data.
Example
A researcher is asked to present the
performance of a section in the
statistic test.
The following are the test scores.
The data presented in textual form
would be like this:
34 42 20 50 17 9 34 43

50 18 35 43 50 23 23 35

37 38 38 39 39 38 38 39

24 29 25 26 28 27 44 44

49 48 46 45 45 46 45 46
Solution
First, arrange the data in order for you
to identify the important characteristics.
This can be done in two ways:
rearranging from lowest to highest or
using the stem-and-leaf plot.
Below is the rearrangement of data from
lowest to highest.
9 23 28 35 38 43 45 48

17 24 29 37 39 43 45 49

18 25 34 38 39 44 46 50

20 26 34 38 39 44 46 50

23 27 35 38 42 45 46 50
With the rearranged data,
pertinent data worth
mentioning can be easily
recognized. The following is
one way of presenting data in
textual form.
In the statistic class of 40
students, 3 obtained the perfect
score of 50. Sixteen students got
a score of 40 and above, while
only 3 got 19 and below.
Generally, the students
performed well in the test with
23 or 70% getting a passing
score of 38 and above.
What are the advantages
and disadvantages of
presenting a data in textual
form?
The advantage of it is that, the
data would be more interpreted,
because there is a direct
explanation of how the data
happened to be like that. It may
appear overwhelming and too
long.
The disadvantage is that,
it cant interpret the data
in an easier way that
majority could
understand.
FOUR KINDS OF TABULAR
QUALITATIVE

QUANTITATIVE

TEMPORAL

SPATIAL
TABLE 1
Literacy in BiharQUALITATIVE
by sex and location
LOCATION LOCATION
QUALITATIVE
SEX
RURAL
CLASSIFICATION
URBAN
TOTAL
QUANTITATIVE
When classification is done according to
MALE 57. 70 80.83
qualitative characteristics like social 60.32
status , physical status, nationality,
FEMALE
etc., it TEMPORAL
30.03
is
63.30
called
33.37
qualitative
classification.
TOTAL 44.42 72.71 47.53
SPATIAL
Source: Census ofEXAMPLE:
India 2001, Provisional
Population Totals.
QUANTITATIVE CLASSIFICATION
QUALITATIVE
In quantitative classification, the data
are classified on the basis of
QUANTITATIVE
characteristics which are in
quantitative in nature. In the words
TEMPORAL
these characteristics can be measured
quantitatively. For example age,
height, production, income,
SPATIAL etc. are
quatitative characteristics
TABLE 4.2
Distribution of 542 respondent by their age
in an election study in Bihar
NO. OF
AGE GROUP %
RESPONDENTS

20-30 3 0.55

30-40 61 11.25

40-50 132 24.35

50-60 153 28.24


60-70 140 25.83

70-80 51 9.41

80-90 2 0.37

TOTAL 542 100.0

Source: assembly election Patna central


constituency 2005, A.N. Sinha Institute of Social
Studies, Patna. Here classifying characteristics
age in years and is quantifiable.
QUALITATIVE
TEMPORAL

QUANTITATIVE
In this classification time becomes the
classifying variable and data are
categorised according
TEMPORAL to time. Time
may be in hours, days, weeks, months,
years, etc. for example see Table 4.3
SPATIAL
TABLE 4.3
Yearly sales of a tea shop from 1995 to 2000
Years Sales (Rs in Lakhs)
1995 79.2
1996 81.3
1997 82.4
1998 80.5
1999 100.2
2000 91.2
Data Source: Unpublished data. In this the table
classifying characteristic is year and takes values in
the scales of time.
QUALITATIVE
SPATIAL CLASSIFICATION

When the classification


QUANTITATIVE is done in such
a way that place becomes the
classifying variable, it is called spatial
TEMPORAL
classification. The place may be a
village/ town, block, district, state,
country, etc. SPATIAL
Table 4.4
Export from India to rest of the world in one year as share of
total export (per cent)

DESTINATION EXPORT SHARE


USA 21.8
Germany 5.6
Other EU 14.7
UK 5.7
Japan 4.9
Russia 2.1
Other East Europe 0.6
OPEC 10.5
Asia 19.0
Other LDC 5.6
Other 9.5
Total 100.0
(Total Export: US $ 33658.5 million)
Presenting
Data in
Graphical Form
Graphical Representations of Data
The transformation of data through visual methods like
graphs, diagrams, maps and charts is called representation
of data.
Visualization techniques are ways of creating and
manipulating graphical representations of data. We use
these representations in order to gain better insight and
understanding of the problem.
Pictures can convey an overall message much better than a
list of numbers.
Types of Graphical Representations of data :
1. GRAPHS OF FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION

2. GRAPHS OF TIME SERIES


OR LINE GRAPHS
1.Graphs of frequency distribution
Frequency distribution can be
represented graphically.
Types of Frequency distribution graphs.
The Histogram
The Frequency Polygon
The Frequency Curve
Cumulative Frequency curve
3. Pie Diagram = Pie diagram is another graphical
method of the representation of data. It is drawn to
depict the total value of the given attribute using a
circle. Dividing the circle into corresponding degrees
of angle then represent the sub sets of the data.
Hence, it is also called as Divided Circle Diagram.
The angle of each variable is calculated using
the following formula.
Compound Bar Diagram
When different components are grouped in one set of
variable or different variables of one component are
put together, their representation is made by a
compound bar diagram. In this method, different
variables are shown in a single bar with different
rectangles.

Construction
(a) Arrange the data in ascending or descending order.
(b) A single bar will depict the set of variables by
dividing the total length of the bar as percentage.
Histogram
A histogram is used for continuous data,
where the bins represent ranges of data,
and the areas of the rectangles are
meaningful, while a bar chart is a plot of
categorial variables and the discontinuity
should be indicated by having gaps
between the rectangles, from which only
the length is meaningful.
The need of graphically representing data :

Graphics, such as maps, graphs and diagrams, are used


to represent large volume of data.
If the information is presented in tabular form or in a
descriptive record, it becomes difficult to draw results.
Graphical form makes it possible to easily draw visual
impressions of data.
It is a time consuming task to draw inferences about
whatever is being presented in nongraphical form.
These makes it easy to understand the patterns of
population growth, distribution and the density, sex
ratio, agesex composition, occupational structure,