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# BISWARAJ SAHU

714EE3080
ELECTRICAL ENGG.
NIT ROURKELA
P-V MODULE CHARACTERISTICS AND RATING
Solar cells are the building blocks of a panel.
The shunt and series resistances are added because no solar cell is
ideal in practical

## Output current equation of the pv module :

(+)
I =

The I-V and P-V curve for the
equation are shown in the figure
1.

## Solar cells naturally exhibit a non

linear characteristics that vary
with temperature and irradiation.

## The curves for different

irradiations are shown in figure 2.

## The load line is fixed for a

particular load and hence the
operating region remains the
same even if the curve deviates
due to irradiation change.
MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING(MPPT)
MPPT is an algorithm included in solar charge controllers for extracting
maximum power available from the PV module under certain conditions.
The major principle of MPPT is to extract the maximum available power from
PV module by making them operate at the most efficient voltage.
MPPT checks output of PV module, compares it to battery voltage then fixes
what is the best power that PV module can produce to charge the battery and
converts it to the best voltage to get maximum current into battery.
A MPPT is DC to DC converter which operates by taking DC input from PV
module, changing it to AC and converting it back to a different DC voltage and
current to exactly match the PV module to the battery.
WHY MPPT?
Consider we have a 240W PV module rated at 30V, 8A.
The PV module MUST operate at 30 volts AND 8 amps in order to produce the 240 Watts of
power. It is important to understand that a solar module is a constant current device. That means
for a given amount of sunlight, the current stays the same but the voltage can be pulled down by a

## NON MPPT CHARE CONTROLLERS

Non-MPPT charge controllers connect the PV module directly to the battery. The battery acts as a
load which will pull down the PV module operating voltage. In our example above, the Vmax of
30 volts is pulled down to battery voltage say 12V.
From the 240 Watt PV module, you would still have the 8 amps of charge current. However, the
operating voltage will be pulled down to the battery voltage so you will only be using 96
Watts. (12 X 8 = 96 Watts.)
The non-MPPT charge controller will keep pushing the battery voltage up until it reaches the set
point of the charge controller. If your charge controller is set to regulate at 15 volts, the most you
can ever use from the 240 watt module is 120 watts! (15 X 8 = 120 Watts) and hence MPPT is
must.
MPPT CHARGE CONTROLLERS
The MPPT process will raise the current while lowering the voltage which can be
done through DC to DC conversion. The reason this works is because we can
exchange current and voltage and yet have the same amount of
power. Example: 100 Volts at 1 amp = 100 Watts; 10 volts at 10 amps = 100
Watts.
MPPT circuits use this process to lower the voltage close to the battery voltage
while raising the current. As long as the voltage reaching the MPPT controller is
higher than the battery voltage by about 5% or more, then the MPPT output
current will be higher than the input.
With the PV we considered we have the potential of 240 Watts of power. With
the MPPT controller connected to this module, the DC converter can output 16
amps while regulating the voltage to 15. (16 X 15 = 240 watts).
For off-grid systems, MPPT will allow you to wire the PV modules in series for
high voltage, even up to 600 volts DC! This is extremely beneficial for long wire
runs as the higher the operating voltage, the smaller the wire can be for a given
length.
FOCV BASED MPPT
The fractional open circuit voltage based MPPT
utilizes the fact that the PV array voltage
corresponding to the maximum power exhibits a
linear dependence with respect to array open
circuit voltage for different irradiation and
temperature levels.
The PV array is disconnected from the load after
regular intervals for the sampling of the array
voltage which results in power loss.
If the duration between two successive samplings
of the array voltage is too long, there is a
considerable loss. This is because the output
voltage of the PV array follows the unchanged
reference during one sampling period. Once a
maximum power point (MPP) is tracked and a
change in irradiation occurs between two
successive samplings, then the new MPP is not
tracked until the next sampling of the PV array
voltage.
PERTURB AND OBSERVE (P&O))
The P&O algo works by sampling both the PV
array voltage and current.
The tracker operates by periodically
incrementing and decrementing the solar
array voltage.
If a given perturbation leads to an increase
or decrease in the output power, then the
subsequent perturbation is produced in the
same or opposite direction.
The duty cycle of the dc chopper is varied
until the MPP is reached.
LIMITATIONS:
Repeated perturbations lead to an oscillation
Oscillations arent desirable and can be
reduced by decreasing the step size but it
slows down the tracker.
During Partial shading, there would be
multiple peaks and this algo fails to find the
real peak.
INCREMENTAL CONDUCTANCE METHOD
The name specifies that this
algorithm works by incrementing or
decrementing the conductance.
The algorithm is obtained by
equalising slope to zero which is the
MPP

=0

( )
=0

+ =0

+ =0

=

The above increases towards the
left of MPP and decreases on the
right
MODIFIED INCREMENTAL CONDUCTANCE METHOD
The inability of the previous method to respond
properly with the change in irradiation levels and
load change is eliminated in this algorithm.
The algorithm remains same just a permitted
error is considered in order to eliminate the stead
state oscillations.

+ < |0.06|

There are two operating modes (flag = 0,1)
Mode-A(flag = 0), MPP is reached when flag
=1(Mode -B)
When flag=0, conventional MPPT is
implemented with the above condition.
In modeB, the condition is checked
continuously, when any change in irradiation is
found, it switches to mode-A and the executes
the proper change
NEURAL NETWORK BASED CONTROLLER FOR MPPT

shown in Fig.1

Figure 1

## The neural network structure used

for the controller is shown in Fig.2

Figure 2
NEURAL NETWORK BASED CONTROLLER FOR MPPT
The NN controller can give specific output Vmax, the voltage of the PV array at MPP at a
certain temperature and solar irradiance. As these two parameters change continuously the
output Vmax of the NN controller also changes accordingly. The pulse generator of Fig.
1 takes Vmax and Imax (the current at MPP) from the NN controller and PV array output
voltage and current, then determines the pulse for the switching of DC/DC converter to
ensure maximum power output at the load.
The data set consists of the corresponding Vmax and Imax values and usually back
propagation is used to converge to the desired output and hence it predicts the required
values which is fed to the pulse generator which sets the duty cycle accordingly.
The NN based MPPT shows great accuracy in tracking MPP in rapidly changing conditions
(both temperature and irradiance).
NEURAL NETWORK BASED CONTROLLER FOR MPPT
THANK YOU!